The Ancient Library

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an augur, their appointment by him was not con­sidered contrary to this principle. (Romulus coop-tavit augures^ de Rep. ii. 9.) They retained the right of co-optation until b.c. 103, the year of the Domitian law. By this law it was enacted that vacancies in the priestly colleges should be filled up by the votes of a minority of the tribes, i. e. seventeen out of thirty-five chosen by lot. (Cic. de Leg. Aqr. ii. 7 ; Veil. Pat. ii. 12 ; Suet. Ner. 2.) The Domitian law was repealed by Sulla b.c. 81 (Pseudo-Ascon. in Cic. Div. p. 102, ed. Orelli), but again restored b. c. 63, during the consulship of Cicero, by the tribune T. Annius Labienus, with the support of Caesar (Dion Cass. xxxvii. 37). It was a second time abrogated by Antony b. c. 44 (Dion Cass. xliv. 53) ; whether again restored by Hirtius and Pansa in their general annulment of the acts of Antony, seems uncertain. The emperors possessed the right of electing augurs at pleasure.

The augurs were elected for life, and even if capitally convicted, never lost their sacred charac­ter. (Plin. Ep. iv. 8.) When a vacancy occurred, the candidate was nominated by two of the elder members of the college (Cic. Phil, ii.2), the electors were sworn, and the new member was then so­lemnly inaugurated. (Cic. Brut. 1.) On such occasion there was always a splendid banquet given, at which all the augurs were expected to be present. (Cic. ad Fam. vii. 26, ad Alt. xii. 13, 14, 15.) The only distinction in the college was one of age ; an elder augur always voted before a younger, even if the latter filled one of the higher offices in the state. (Cic. de Sen. 18.) The head of the college was called magister collegii. It was expected that all the augurs should live on friendly terms with one another, and it was a rule that no one was to be elected to the office, who was known to be an enemy to any of the college. (Cic. ad Fam. iii. 10.) The augur, who had inaugurated a younger member, was always to be regarded by the latter in the light of a parent (in parentis eum loco colere, Cic. Brut. 1).

As insignia of their office the augurs wore the trabea, or public dress (Serv. ad Aen. vii. 612), and carried in their hand the lituus or curved wand. [LiTUUS.] On the coins of the Romans, who filled the office of augur, we constantly find the lituus^ and along with it, not unfrequently, the capis, an earthen vessel which was used by them in sacrifices. (Liv. x. 7 ; Varr. L. L. v. 121, ed. MUIler.) Both of these instruments are seen in the annexed coin of Lentulus.

The science of the augurs was called jus augurum and jus augurium, and was preserved in books (libri augurales), which are frequently mentioned in the ancient writers. The expression for con­sulting the augurs was referre ad augures^ and their answers were called decreta or responsa augu­rum. The science of augury had greatly declined in the time of Cicero ; and although he frequently deplores its neglect mliis De Divinatione, yet neither


he nor any of the educated classes appears to have had any faith in it. What a farce it had become a few years later is evident from the statement of Dionysius (ii. 6), who informs us that a new magistrate, who took the auspices upon the first day of his office, was accustomed to have an augur on his side, who told him that lightning had ap­peared on his left, which was regarded as a good omen, and although nothing of the kind had happened, this declaration was considered suffi­cient. (Mascov, De Jure Auspicii apud Romatws, Lips. 1721 ; Werther, De Auguriis Romanis, Lemgo, 1835 ; Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. ii. p. 935, &c. ; Miiller, Etrusker, vol. ii. p. 110, &c. ; liar-tung, Die Religion der Romer, vol. i. p. 98, &c. ; Gottling, GescMchte der Rom. Staatsverf. p. 198, &c.; Becker, Rom. Altertli. vol. ii. part i. p. 304 ; but above all Rubino, Rom. Verfassung^ p. 34, &c.) AUGURA'CULUM. [augur, p. 176, a.] AUGURA'LE. [augur, p. 176, a.] AUGUSTA'LES (sc. ludi, also called Augus-talia, sc. certamina, ludicra, and by the Greek writers and in Greek inscriptions, 2e£a<TTa, 2e-€dcrijuLa9 AyyotxrraAfa), were games celebrated in honour of Augustus, at Rome and in other parts of the Roman empire. After the battle of Actium, a quinquennial festival (iravf)yvpis Trevrerrjpis) was instituted ; and the birthday (yzveQXicC) of Augustus, as well as that on which the victory was announced at Rome, were regarded as festival days. (Dion Cass. Ii. 19.) In the provinces, also, in. addition to temples and altars, quinquennial games were instituted in almost every town. (Suet. Aug* 59.) The Roman equites were accustomed of their own accord to celebrate the birthday of Augustus in every alternate year (Suet. Aug. 57) ; and the praetors, before any decree had been passed for the purpose, were also in the habit of exhibiting games every year in honour of Augustus. (Dion Cass. liy. 26, 30). It was not, however, till b. c. 11, that the festival on the birth-day of Augustus was for­mally established by a decree of the senate (Dion Cass. liv. 34), and it is this festival which is usually meant when the Augustales or Augustalia are mentioned. It was celebrated iv. Id. Octobr. At the death of Augustus, this festival assumed a more solemn character, was added to the Fasti, and celebrated to his honour as a god. (Tac. Ann. i. 13 ; Dion Cass. Ivi. 46.) Hence, Tacitus speaks of it as first established in the reign of Tiberius (Ami. i. 54.) It was henceforth exhibited annually in the circus, at first by the tribunes of the plebs, at the commencement of the reign of Tiberius, but afterwards by the praetor peregrinus. (Tacit. Ann. i. 15 ; Dion Cass. Ivi. 46.) These games con­tinued to be exhibited in the time of Dion Cassius, that is, about a. d. 230 (liv. 34).

The augustales, or augustalia, at Neapolis (Naples), were celebrated with great splendour. They were instituted in the lifetime of Augustus (Suet. Aug. 98), and were celebrated every five years. According to Strabo (v. p. 246), who speaks of these games without mentioning their name, they rivalled the most magnificent of the Grecian festivals. They consisted of gymnastic and musical contests, and lasted for several days. At these games the Emperor Claudius brought forward a Greek comedy, and received the prize. (Suet. Claud. 11 ; compare Dion Cass. Ix. 6.)

Augustalia (3e€acrra) were also celebrated at Alexandria, as appears from an inscription in

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