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'above and below, and beneath all a plintli: but in several of the best examples the plinth is wanting. (For the exact proportions, see Vitruvius.) This form of base seems to have been originally an Athenian simplification of the Ionic base ; but it was afterwards used in the other orders, especi­ally the Corinthian and the Roman Doric ; and it is usually regarded as being, from its simple ele­gance, the most generally applicable of all the bases [SriRA],

In the second of the passages above referred to, Vitruvius applies the term Atticurges to a particular form of door-way, but it differed very little from that which he designates as the Doric : in fact, though Vitruvius,enumerates three kinds of doorways to temples, the Doric, Ionic, and Attic, we only find in the existing building two really distinct forms. (Mauch, die Griecli. u. Rom. Bau-Ordmtngen. p. 97.) According to Pliny (H. N. xxxvi. 23. s. 56) square pillars were called Atticae colum- nae.) [P.S.]

AUCTTO signifies generally " an increasing, an enhancement," and hence the name is applied to a public sale of goods, at which persons bid against one another. The term audio is general, and com­prehends the species audio., bonorum emtio and sectio. As a species, audio signifies a public sale of goods by the owner or his agent, or a sale of goods of a deceased person for the purpose of di­viding the money among those entitled to it, which was called audio kereditaria. (Cic. Pro Caecin. 5.) The sale was sometimes conducted by an argen-tarius, or by a magister auctionis ; and the time, place, and conditions of sale, were announced either by a public notice (tabula., album, &c.), or by a crier (praeco).

The usual phrases to express the giving notice of a sale are audionem proscribes, praedicarej and to determine on a sale, audionem constituere. The purchasers (emtores), when assembled, were some­times said ad tabidam adesse. The phrases signi­fying to bid are, liceri, licitari, which was done either by word of mouth, or by such significant hints as are known to all people who have attended an auction. The property was said to be knocked down (addici) to the purchaser who either en­tered into an engagement to pay the money to the argentarius or magister, or it was sometimes a condition of sale that there should be no delivery of the thing before payment. (Gains iv. 126 ; actio, pp. 9, 10.) An entry was made in the books of the argentarius of the sale and the money due, and credit was given in the same books to the purchaser when he paid the money (expensa pecunia lata, dccepta relata). Thus the book of the argentarius might be used as evidence for the purchaser, both of his having made a purchase, and having paid for the thing purchased. If the money was not paid according to the conditions of sale, the argentarius could sue for it.

The praeco, or crier, seems to have acted the part of the modern auctioneer, so far as calling out the. biddings (Cic. De Offic. ii. 23), and amusing the company. Slaves, when sold -by auction, were placed on a stone, or other elevated thing, as is sometimes the case when slaves are sold in the United States of North America ; and hence the phrase homo de lapide emtus. It was usual to put up a spear, hasta, in auctions, a symbol derived, it is said, from the ancient practice of selling under a spear the booty acquired in war. Hence the


phrase M sub hasta vendere " (Cic. De OJ'\ ii. 8j signified an auction. The expression " asta pub • blica " is now used in Italy to signify an auction : the expression is " vendere all1 asta pubblica,"' or " vendere per subasta," By the auctio, the Quiri- tarian ownership in the thing sold was trans­ ferred to the purchaser. [bonorum emtio ;"' sectio.] [G.L.J

AUCTOR, a word which contains the same element as aug-eo, and signifies generally one who enlarges, confirms, or gives to a thing its complete­ness and efficient form. The numerous technical significations of the word are derivable from this general notion. As he who gives to a thing that which is necessary for its completeness, may in this sense be viewed as the chief actor or doer, the word auctor is also used in the sense of one who originates or proposes a thing ; but this cannot be viewed as its primary meaning. Accordingly, the word auctor, when used in connection with lex cr senatus consultum, often means him who originates and proposes, as appears from numerous passages. (Liv. vi. 36 ; Cic. Pro Dom. c. 30.) When a measure was approved by the senate before it was confirmed by the votes of the people, the senate were said auctores fieri, and this preliminary ap­proval was called senatus audoritas. (Cic. Brutus, c. 14.)

The expressions " patres auctores fiunt," " pa-tres auctores facti," have given rise to much dis­cussion. In the earlier periods of the Roman state, the word " patres " was equivalent to " pa-tricii;" in the later period, when the patricians had lost all importance as a political body, the term patres signified the senate. But the writers of the age of Cicero, when speaking of the early periods, often used the word patres, when they might have used patricii, and thus a confusion arose between the early and the later signification of the word patres.

The expression " patres auctores fiunt" means that the determinations of the populus in the comitia centuriata were confirmed by the patricians in the comitia curiata. To explain this fully, as to the earliest periods, it is necessary to show what the lex curiata de wiperio was.

After the comitia curiata had elected a king (creavit\ the king proposed to the same body a lex curiata de iinperio. (Cic. De Rep. ii. 13, 17, 18, 20.)a At first it might appear as if there were two elections, for the patricians, that is the po-pulus, first elected the king, and then they had to vote again upon the imperium. Cicero (De Lee/. Agr. ii. 11) explains it thus—that the populus had thus an opportunity to reconsider their vote (re-prehendendi potestas). But the chief reason was that the imperium was not conferred by the bare election, and it was necessary that the king should have the imperium : consequently there must be a distinct vote upon it. Now Livy says nothing of the lex curiata in his first book, but he uses the-expression " patres auctores fierent," " patres auc­tores facti." (Liv. i. 17, 22, 32.) In this sense the patres were the " auctores comitiorum," an ex­pression, analogous to that in which a tutor is said to be an auctor to his pupillus. In some passages the expression " patricii auctores " is used, which is an additional proof that in the expression " patrea auctores," the patrician body is meant, and not the senate, as some have supposed.

Cicero, in the passages quoted, does not use the

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