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ATLAiNTES.

Hating consequences, were manifestly the mere effect of public opinion, and lasted until the person labouring under it distinguished himself by some signal exploit, and thus wiped off the stain from his name. The Spartans, who in Sphacteria had surrendered to the Athenians, were punished with a kind of atimia which deprived them of their claims to public offices (a punishment common to all kinds- of atimia), and rendered them incapable of making any lawful purchase or sale. After­wards, however, they recovered their rights. (Thuc. v. 34.) Unmarried men were also sub­ject to a certain degree of infamy, in so far as they were deprived of the customary honours of old age, were excluded from taking part in the celebration of certain festivals, and occasionally compelled to sing defamatory songs against themselves. No atimos was allowed to marry the daughter of a Spartan citizen, and was thus compelled to endure the ignominies of an old bachelor. (Plut. Agesil. 30; Mtiller, Dor. iv. 4. § 3.) Although an atimos at Sparta was subject to a great many painful restric­tions, yet his condition cannot be called outlawry; it was rather a state of infamy properly so called. Even the atimia of a coward cannot be considered equivalent to the civil death of an Athenian atimos, for we find him still acting to some extent as a citizen, though always in a manner which made his infamy manifest to every one who saw him.

(Lelyveld, De Infamia ex Jure Attico, Amstelod. 1835 ; Wachsmuth, Hellen. Altertk. &c. vol. ii. p. 195, &c., 2d edit.; Meier, De Bonis Damnat. p. 101, &c. ; Schomann, De Comit. Atli. p. 67, &c. transl. ; Hermann, Polit. Ant. of Greece, § 124 ; Meier und Schomann, Ait. Proc. p. 563. On the Spartan atimia in particular, see Wachsmuth, &c., vol. ii. p. 155, &c., 2d ed. ; Muller, Dor. iii. 10. § 3.) [L. S.]

ATLANTES (&r\avr^ and TELAMO'NES (reAajitajj/es), are terms used in architecture, the former by the Greeks, the latter by the Romans, to designate those male figures which are sometimes fancifully used, like the female Caryatides, in place of columns (Vitruv. vi. 7. § 6, Schneid.). Both words are derived from T\riva.i, and the former evidently refers to the fable of Atlas, who sup­ported the vault of heaven, the latter perhaps to the strength of the Telamonian Ajax.

The Greek architects used such figures sparingly, and generally with some adaptation to the character

ATRAMENTUM.

of the building. They were much more freely used in tripods, thrones, and so forth.

They were also applied as ornaments to the sides of a vessel, having the appearance of supporting the upper works ; as in the ship of Hiero, described by Athenaeus (v. p. 208. b).

A representation of sinxh figures is given in the preceding woodcut, copied from the tepidarium in the baths at Pompeii: another example of them is in the temple of Jupiter Olympius at Agrigentum.

(Miiller, Arch'dol. d. Kunst, § 279; Mauch, die Griech. u. Rom. Bau-Ordnungen, p. 88.) [P. S.]

ATRAMENTUM, a term applicable to any black colouring substance, for whatever purpose it may be used (Plaut, Mostett. i. 3. 102 ; Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 50), like the ^Xav of the Greeks. (Dem. de Cor. p. 313.) There were, however, three principal kinds of atramentum, one called librarium, or scriptorium (in Greek, ypatyisiby jue'Acw), another called sutorium, the third tectorium. Atramentum librarium was what we call writing-ink. (Hor. Ep. ii. 1. 236 • Petron. 102; Cic. ad Qu. Fr. ii. 15.) Atramentum sutorium was used by shoemakers for dyeing leather. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 12. s. 32.) This atramentum sutorium con­tained some poisonous ingredient, such as oil of vitriol ; whence a person is said to die of atramen­tum sutorium, that is, of poison, as in Cicero (ad Fam. ix. 21.) Atramentum tectorium, or pidorium, was used by painters for some purposes, apparently as a sort of varnish. (Plin. //. N. xxxvi. 5. s. 25, &c.) The Scholiast on Aristophanes (Plut. 277) says that the courts of justice, or b'lKao'T'fipia, in Athens were called each after some letter of the alphabet: one alpha, another beta, a third gamma, and, so on, and that against the doors of each diKao-T-fjpiov, the letter which belonged to it was written irvppy |8cfyi/«m, in " red ink." This " red ink," or " red dye," could not of course be called atramentum. Of the ink of the Greeks, however, nothing certain is known, except what may be gathered from the passage of Demosthenes above referred to, which will be noticed again below. The ink of the Egyptians was evidently of a very superior kind, since its colour and brightness re­main^ to this day in some specimens of papyri. The initial characters of the pages are often written in red ink. Ink among the Romans is first found mentioned in the passages of Cicero and Plautus above referred to. Pliny informs us how it was made. He says, " It was made of soot in various ways, with burnt resin or pitch: and for this pur­pose," he adds, " they have built furnaces, which do not allow the smoke to escape. The kind most commended is made in this way from pine-wood : —It is mixed with soot from the furnaces or baths (that is, the hypocausts of the baths) ; and this they use ad volumina scribenda. Some also make a kind of ink by boiling and straining the lees of wine," &c. (Plin. //. N. xxxvi. 5. s. 25.) With this account the statements of Vitruvius (vii. 10. p. 197, ed. Schneider) in the main agree. The black matter emitted by the cuttle-fish (sepia), and hence itself called sepia, was also used for atramentum. (Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 50 ; Persius, Sat. iii. 12,13 ; Ausonius, iv. 76.) Aristotle, how­ever, in treating of the cuttle-fish, does not refer to the use of the matter (&oAbs) which it emitSj as ink. (Aelian, H. A. i. 34.) Pliny observes (xxvii. 7. s. 28) that an infusion of wormwood with ink preserves a manuscript from mice. On the whole,

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