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§ 12). This constitutio of Antoninus is quoted in. Justinian's Institutes (1. tit. 8. s. 2), with a slight alteration ; the words ad aedem sacram are substituted for ad fana deormn, since the jus asyli was in his time extended to churches. Those slaves who took refuge at the statue of an em­peror were considered to inflict disgrace on their master, as it was reasonably supposed that no slave would take such a step, unless he had re­ceived very bad usage from his master. If it could be proved that any individual had instigated the slave of another to flee to the statue of an em­peror, he was liable to an action corrupti servi. (Dig. 4-7. tit. 11. s. 5.) The right of asylum seems to have been generally, but not entirely, confined to slaves. (Dig. 48. tit. 19. s. 28. § 7. Comp. Osiander, De Asylis Gentilium, in Gronov. Thesaur. vol. vi. ; Simon, Sur les Asyles, in Mem. de PA cad. des Inscript. vol. iii. ; Bringer, De Asy-lorum Origine, Uau9 et Abusu^ Lugd. Bat. 1828 ; C. Neu, De Asylis^ Gott. 1837 ; respecting the right of asylum in the churches under the Christian emperors, see Rein, Das Criminalrecht der Romer, p. 896'.)

The term dcruAia was also applied to the secu­rity from plunder (acrvXia koi Kara -yr\v teal Kara 3-aAacrcrcw), which was sometimes granted by one state to another, or even to single individuals. (See Bb'ckh, Corp. Inscrip. i. p. 725.)

ATELEIA (are/Vela), is generally immunity or exemption from some or all the duties which a person has to perform towards the state. Im­munities may be granted either as a privilege to the citizens of a state, exempting them from certain duties which would otherwise be incumbent on them, or they are given as honorary distinctions to foreign kings, states, communities or even private individuals. With regard to the latter the ate-leia was usually an exemption from custom duties on the importation or exportation of goods, and was given as a reward for certain good services. Thus Croesus received the ateleia at Delphi (Herod, i. 54), the Deceleans at Sparta (Herod, ix. 73), and Leucon, the ruler of Bosporus, at Athens. (Dem. c. Lept. p. 466, &c.) It appears that if a person thus distinguished, or a citizen of a foreign community possessing the ateleia, took up his residence in the state which had granted it, he also enjoyed other privileges, such as the exemption from the protection money, or tax which resident aliens had to pay at Athens. (Harpocrat. s. v. icroT€\')]s) Nay this ateleia might even become equivalent to the full franchise, as, e. g. the Byzan­tines gave the exemption from liturgies, and the franchise to all Athenians that might go to Byzan­tium. (Dem. De Coron. p. 256.) In many in­stances a partial ateleia, or an exemption from custom duties, was granted for the purpose of en­couraging commerce. (Theophr. Char. 23 ; Schol. ad Aristoph. Plut. 905, with Bockh's remarks, Publ. Earn. p. 87.) With regard to the inhabitants of a state, we must, as in the case of Athens, again dis­tinguish between two classes, viz. the resident aliens and real citizens. At Athens all resident aliens had to pay a tax (^uerot'/aoj/) which we may term protection-tax, because it was the price for the protection they enjoyed at Athens; but as it was the interest of the state to increase commerce, and for that purpose to attract strangers to settle at Athens, many of them were exempted from this tax, i. e. enjoyed the arcAeja iagtoik'iov (Dem. c.


Aristae): p. 691), and some were even exempted from custom duties, and the property tax or €i<r- 0opc£, from which an Athenian citizen could never be exempted. The ateleia enjoyed by Athenian citizens was either a general immunity (dreAe/a aTrcWajj'), such as was granted to persons who had done some great service to their country, and even to their descendants, as in the case of Harmodius and Aristogeiton ; or it was a partial one exempting a person from all or certain liturgies, from certain custom duties, or from service in the army. The last of these immunities was legally enjoyed by alJ members of the council of the Five Hundred (Ly- curg. c. Leocr. 11), and the archons for the time being, by the fanners of the custom duties (Dem. c. Neaer. 1353), and by those who traded by sea, although with them the exemption must have been limited. (Schol. ad Arist. Plut. 905, Acham. 39i); Suid. s. v. €/jiTrop6s efyu.) Most information re- specting the ateleia is derived from Demosthenes' speech against Leptines. But compare also Wolf's Prolegom. ad Lept. p. Ixxi. &c.; Bockh,Pz^/. Econ. p. 85, &c.; Westermann, De publicis Atheniensium Honoribus et Praemiis^ p. 6, &c. [L. S.]


ATHENAEUM (a9<f)i>aiov}9 a school (Indus) founded by the Emperor Hadrian at Rome, for the promotion of literary and scientific studies (itigenu- arum artium)9 and called Athenaeum from the town of Athens, which was still regarded as the seat of intellectual refinement. The Athenaeum was situated on the Capitoline hill. It was a kind of university ; and a staff of professors, for the various branches of study, was regularly engaged. Under Theodosius II., for example, there were three orators, ten grammarians, five sophists, one philosopher, two lawyers, or jurisconsults. Besides the instruction given by these magistri, poets, ora­ tors, and critics were accustomed to recite their compositions there, and these prelections were some­ times honoured with the presence of the emperors themselves. There were other places where such recitations were made, as the Library of Trajan [bibliotheca] ; sometimes also a room was hired, and made into an auditorium, seats erected, &c. The Athenaeum seems to have continued in high repute till the fifth century. Little is known of the details of study or discipline ih the Athenaeum, but in the constitution of the year 370, there are some regulations respecting students in Rome, from which it would appear that it must have been a very extensive and important institution. And this is confirmed by other statements contained in some of the Fathers and other ancient authors, from which we learn that young men from all parts, after finishing their usual school and college studies in their own town or province, used to re­ sort to Rome as a sort of higher university, for the purpose of completing their education. (Atir. Vict. Caes. 14 ; Dion Cass. Ixxiii. 17 ; Capitolin. Pertin. 11, Gordian. Sen. 3 ; Lamprid. Alex. Sever. 35 ; Cod. Theod. 14. tit. 9. s. 1.) [A. A.]

ATHLETAE (aflA^rat, a0A77T%)es), were per­sons who contended in the public games of the Greeks and Romans for the prizes (50Aa, whence the name of d^A^rat), which were given to those who conquered in contests of agility and strength. This name was, in the later period of Grecian his­tory and among the Romans, properly confined to those persons who entirely devoted themselves to a course of training which might fit them to excel

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