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other hand in the Parapegma of Geminus, in the observations ascribed to Eudoxus, aKp6vvxos is the general term applied to all evening settings, and most of these unquestionably refer to the apparent phenomena. Euctemon again makes use of 4<r7re-pios to express the same meaning. The words 'Apicrovpos dKpowxos Trpwias dvvei under Scorpius d. 8. are probably corrupt.
Under these circumstances to prevent all confusion or ambiguity, we have altogether passed over the terms Cosmicus and Acronychus in our table, but have retained Heliacus, which, like Cosmicits, first occurs in the passage quoted from Servius, but is applied uniformly by subsequent writers to the phenomenon marked (a) and (8), and to no others.
3. Pliny (If. JV. xviii. 25) proposes to designate by Emersus, what we have called the Heliacal Rising (a), "because the star then for the first time emerges from the sun's rays, and by Occultatio, what we have called the Heliacal Setting (5), because this is the last appearance of the star, which is forthwith obscured by the sun's rays, but these terms do not appear to have been ever generally received.
4. It is manifest that of the eight phenomena, named above, the first four are purely matters of calculation, since the true risings and settings never can be visible to the naked eye. These then ought always to have been, and for some time always were, excluded from rural calendars intended for the use of practical men. We find, however, from the fragments of Calippus, preserved in the Parapegma of Geminus, when verified by computation, that this astronomer had substituted the true risings and settings for the apparent risings and settings, which were there marked in the tables of Euctemon, Meton and Eudoxus. Hence, great caution would become indispensable in quoting from different authorities, or in advancing an original statement. If the rising of a star was named, it would be necessary not only to specify whether it was the morning or the evening rising, but also whether the true or the apparent rising was indicated, and to proceed in like manner for the setting of a star. Now and then we find in Columella and Pliny some attempt to preserve accuracy in one or other of these essential points, as when the latter observes (xviii. 74): "PridieKalendas (Nov.) Caesari Arcturus occidit et Suculae exoriuntur cum sole ; " " XVI. Kal. Octob. TEgypto Spica, quam tenet Virgo, exoritur matiitino, Etesiaeque desimmt. Hoc idem Caesari XIV. Kalendas XIII. Assyriae significant ;" and even in Virgil, as. when he defines the morning setting of the Pleiads : " Ante tibi JEoae Atlantides abscondantur;"' but for the most part both in prose writers and in poets, everything is vague and unsatisfactory; risings and settings of all descriptions, calculated for different epochs and for different latitudes, are thrown together at random. In order to substantiate these charges, we may examine the statements contained in Columella, Ovid, and Pliny with regard to Lyra, a constellation to which considerable importance was attached by the Romans, since the beginning of Autumn in the calendar of Caesar was marked uy its (true) morning setting. It will suit our purpose particularly well, because from its limited extent every portion of the constellation became visible, within two or three days after the appearance of the first star \ and hence no ambiguity
could arise from the heliacal risings of the extreme portions being separated by an interval of some weeks, as was the case with Orion and others stretching over a large space in the heavens, in treating of which it became necessary to specify particular portions of the figure, as when we read " Orionis humerus oritur ;" " Gladius Orionis oc cidere incipit; '* Orion totus oritur," and so forth. In the following quotations, the words Fidis and Fidicula seem to be absolutely synonymous, there being no reason to believe that the latter was applied exclusively to the peculiarly bright star which in the catalogues of modern astronomers is a Lyrae, the 6 \af.nrpbs tt?s \vpas of Ptolemy, although to this hi all probability most of the observations were directed. We shall set down in regular order first the settings and then the risings.
Settings of Lyra.
(1,) Pridie Id. Aug. (12 August) Fidis occidit mane et Auctumnus incipit. Col. xi. 2. § 57.
According to Pliny (xviii. 59), the setting of Fidicula (Fidiculae occasus) marked the commencement of autumn, and took place on the forty-sixth day after the solstice, that is, on the 8th of August, if we include, according to the Roman method of computation, the 24th of June, the day from whicli he-reckoned. In a subsequent chapter (68. § 2) he states that the phenomenon in question took place, according to the Calendar of Caesar, on the llth of August, but that more accurate observations had fixed it to the 8th, and this he soon after repeats (69. § 4).
(2.) XIII. Kal. Sept. (i. e. 20 August) Sol in Virginem transitum facit... hoc eoclem die Fidis occidit. — X. Kal. Sept. (23 August) ex eoclem sidere tempestas plermnque oritur et pluvia. Co-lumell. xi. 2. § 58.
(3.) XL Kal. Feb. (22d January) Fidicula Ves-pere occidit, dies pluvius. Columell. x. 2. § 5.
Ovid places the setting on 23rd of January.
Fulgebit toto jam Lyra nulla polo. Fast. i. 653.
(4.) III. Kal. Feb. (30 January) Fidicula occidit. ColumdL xi. 2. § 6.
(5.) Kal. Feb. (1 February) Fidis incipit oc-cidere. Ventus Eurinus et interdum Auster cuni gran dine est. Columell. xi. 2. § 14.
III. Non. Febr. (3rd February) Fidis tota occidit. Columell. Ibid.
Ovid, without alluding to what he had said before, remarks on the 2nd of February (Fast. ii. 73):
Ilia nocte aliquis tollens ad sidera vulturn, Dicet, ubi est hodie, quae Lyra fulsit heri ?
Pliny has (xviii. 64) " Et pridie Nonas Febru-arias (4th February) Fidicula vesperi (sc. occidit).
Risings of Lyra.
(6.) IX. Kal. Mai. (23rd April) prima nocte Fidicula apparet, tempestatem significat. Columell. xi. 2. § 37.
VI. Kal. Mai. (26th April) Bseotiae et Atticae Canis Vesperi occultatur, Fidicula mane oritur. Plin. xviii. 66. § 1.
(7.) Ovid (Fast. v. 415) names the 5th of May as the day on which Lyra rises.
(8.) III. Id. Mai. (13th May) Fidis mane exoritur, significat tempestatem. Columell. xi. 2. § 40C