The Ancient Library

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ordered to quit Italy within ten days (Val. Max. i. 3. § 2), and they were again banished from the city in b. c. 33, by M. Agrippa, who was then aedile. (Dion Cass. xlix. 1.) Another severe ordinance was levelled by Augustus against this class (Dion Cass. Ixv. 1, Ixvi. 25), but the frequent occurrence of such phrases as " expulit et mathematicos "-(Suet. Tib. 36), " pulsis Italia mathematicis " (Tac. Hist. ii. 62), in the historians of the empire prove how firm a hold these pretenders must have obtained over the public mind, and how profitable the oc­cupation must have been whieh could induce them to brave disgrace, and sometimes a cruel death (Tac. Ann. ii. 32). Notwithstanding the number and stringent character of the penal enactments by which they were denounced, they appear to have kept their ground, and although from time to time crushed or terrified into silence, to have re-


mention specially once for all to avoid the necessity of constant references ; in the Historische Untc.r-suclmngen uber die astronomischen Beobachtungen der Alien., by the same author (Berlin, 1806) ; in a paper by Buttmann Uber die Entstekung der Stern-bilder azifder griecMsclien Sfare, contained in the Transactions of the Berlin Academy for 1826; and in the GescMchte der Astronomie of Schaubach.

2. The risings and settings of the fixed stars considered with reference to the position of the sun in the ecliptic, — a series of phenomena which re­curring regularly every tropical year, served in the most remote ages as the sole guides for the operations of the husbandman, and which, being in later times frequently appealed to by the poets, are sometimes designated the "Poetical Risings and Settings of the Stars." Here we chiefly de­pend upon the compilations and dissertations.

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