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in the Ionic base [SriRA]. In the orders subsequent to the Ionic, — the Corinthian, Roman Doric, and Composite, — the astragal was very
freely used. The rules for the use of the moulding are given by Vitruvius (iii. 5. § 3, iv. 6. §§ 2, 3. Schneid.). Numerous fine examples of it will be found in the plates of Mauch (Die GriechiscJien und Romiscltvn Ban-Ordnunqen, Potsdam, 1845.) [P.S.]
ASTRATEIAS GRAPHE (aurrpareias 7pa<|>?]), was the accusation instituted against per sons who failed to appear among the troops after they had been enrolled for the campaign by the generals. (Lys. in Ale. pp. 521, 571.) We may presume that the accuser in this, as in the similar action for leaving the ranks (Ae*7rora£ioi/), was any citizen that chose to come forward (6 jSovAo/xei/os1, ots e|ecrrj), and that the court was composed of soldiers who had served in the campaign. The presidency of the court, ac cording to Meier, belonged to the generals. The defendant, if convicted, incurred disfranchisement -— arista, both in his own person and that of his descendants, and there were very stringent laws to punish them if they appeared at the public sacra, to which even women and slaves were admitted. (Andoc. de Myst. p. 35 ; Aesch. in Ctes. p. 59 ; Dem. in Timocr. p. 732 ; Meier, Alt. Process, p. 363, &c.) [J. S. M.]
ASTROLOGIA. This word is occasionally employed by the best Latin writers (e. g. Cic. de Dlvin. ii. 42.) to denote astronomy in general, and indeed is found in that sense more frequently than astronomia, which is of rare occurrence. In the present article, however, we confine ourselves to what is strictly termed judicial astrology, and treat of astronomy under astronomia.
At a period far beyond the records of authentic history a belief arose, which still prevails unshaken in the East, that a mysterious but close connection subsisted between the relative position and movements of the heavenly bodies and the fate of man. In process of time it was maintained that the fortunes of each individual throughout life depended upon the aspect of the sky at the moment of his birth, and especially upon the star which was rising above the horizon at the instant when he saw the light, and upon, those which were in its immediate vicinity (conjunctae), or removed from it by a sixth, a fourth, or a third part of a great circle of the sphere, or, finally, upon those which were at the opposite extremity of the game diameter (oppositae). Few doubted that by observation and deep study persons might acquire the power of expounding these appearances, that
the destiny of the child might be predicted with certainty by those who were skilled to interpret the language of the stars, and that the result of any undertaking might be foretold from the aspect of the firmament when it was commenced. Hence a numerous and powerful class of men arose who were distinguished by various designations. From the country where astronomy was first studied, and their science was first developed, they were called Chaldaei or Babylonii j from observing the stars, astronomi^ astrologi, planetarii; from employing diagrams such as were used by geometricians, ma-tliematici; from determining the lot of man at his natal hour, genetldiaci; from prophesying the consummation of his struggles, aTroreAecr/xaTi/cot ; while their art was known as aTrpoAoyia, ^e-TGwpoXoyia, yGVsQXiaXoyia.) a7TOT€Aeo>iaTi/d7, Ars Chatdaeorum, Mathesis, or, from the tables they consulted, TrivaKiKi]. Their calculations were termed Babylonii numeri, XaASaiw yiteflocJoi, XaA-Scucoj/ x|/?]<|>i'5es, Rationes Ckaldaicae; their responses when consulted Clialdaeorum monita, Chaldaeorum natalicia praedicta, Astrologorum praedicta.
The stars and constellations to which attention was chiefly directed were the planets and the signs of the zodiac, some of which were supposed to exert uniformly a benign influence (ayaOoiroiol aoWpes), such as Venus, Jupiter, Luna, Virgo, Libra, Taurus ; others to be uniformly malign (KaKOTroiol cuTTepss), such as Saturnus, Mars, Scorpio, Capricornus ; others to be doubtful (etri-kolvoi atrrepes), such as Mercurhis. By the combination and conjunction (<ruj>5po,u^, consiellatio). or opposition, however, of those benign with those malign, the power of the latter might be neutralised or even reversed, and a most happy horoscope be produced, as in the case of Augustus who was born under Capricornus (Suet. Aug. 94),: and hence that figure frequently appears on his medals. For the sake of expediting calculations, the risings, settings, movements, and relative positions (ortus, occasus, motus, viae, discessiones, coetus, co?iventus, concur stones, circuitus, transitus, habitus, forma, positura, positus siderum et spatiit) were carefully registered in tables (Trfj/a/ces, e'^uepiSes). In so far as the planets were concerned, it was of especial importance to note through what sign of the zodiac they happened to be passing, since each planet had a peculiar sign, called the domus or house of the planet, during its sojourn in which it possessed superior power. Thus Libra, Capricornus, and Scorpio were respectively the houses of Venus, Saturn, and Mars.
The exact period of birth (hora yenitalis) being the critical moment, the computations founded upon it were styled yevtffts (genitura}, wpoa-KOTros (horoscopus), or simply frspa, and the star or stars in the ascendant sidus natalitium, sidera na- talitia. -
Astrologers seem to have found their way to Italy even before a free communication was opened up with the East by the Roman conquests in Greece and Asia, since they are mentioned contemptuously by Ennius. (ap. Cic. De Div, i. 58.) About a century later the government seem to have become sensible of the inconvenience and danger likely to arise from the presence of such impostors, for in b.c. 139 an edict was promulgated by C. Cornelius Hispallus, at that time praetor, by which the Chaldaeans were banished from the city, and