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the art, it only remains to subjoin a brief sketch of its history, which Hirt and Muller divide into five periods: the first, which is chiefly mythical, comes down to the time of Cypselus, 01. 30, b. c. 660 (Muller brings this period down to the 50th Olym­piad, b. c. 580) : the second period comes down to the termination of the Persian war, 01. 75. 2, b. c. 478 (Muller brings it down to 01. 80, b. c. 460) : the third is the brilliant period from the end of the Persian war to the death of Alexander the Great, 01. 114, b.c. 323 (Muller closes this period with the death of Philip, 01. Ill, b. c. 336) : the fourth period is brought down by Hirt to the battle of Actium, b.c. 31, but by Muller only to the Roman conquest of Greece, b.c. 146; the latter division has the convenience of marking the tran­sition from Greek to Roman architecture: Hirt's fifth period is that of the Roman empire, down to the dedication of Constantinople, a. d. 330 ; while Mtiller's fifth period embraces the whole history of Roman architecture, from the time when it began to imitate the Greek, down to the middle ages, when it became mingled with the Gothic: Hirt's division requires us to draw a more definite line of demarcation than is possible, between the Roman and Byzantine styles, and also places that line too early.

The characteristics of these several periods will be developed under the articles which describe the several classes of buildings: they are therefore noticed in this place with the utmost possible brevity. Our information respecting the first period is derived from the Homeric poems, the tradi­tions preserved by other writers, and the most ancient monuments of Greece, Central Italy, and the coast of Asia Minor. Strongly fortified cities, palaces, and treasuries, are the chief works of the earlier part of this period; and to it may be referred most of the so-called Cyclopean remains ; while the era of the Dorian invasion marks, in all probability, the commencement of the Dorian style of temple architecture. The principal names of artists belonging to this period are Daedalus, Euryalus, Hyperbius, Docius, and some others. In the second period the art made rapid advances under the powerful patronage of the aristocracies in some cities, as at Sparta, and of the tyrants in others, .as Cypselus at Corinth, Theagnes at Megara, Cleisthenes at Sicyon, the Peisistratids at Athens, and Polycrates at Samos. Architecture now as­sumed decidedly the character of a fine art, and became associated with the sister arts of sculpture and • painting, which are essential to its develop­ment. The temples of particular deities were en­riched and adorned by presents, such as those which Croesus sent to the Pythian Apollo. Mag­nificent temples sprung up in all the principal Greek cities; and while the Doric order was brought almost, if not quite, to perfection, in Greece Proper, in the Doric colonies of Asia Minor, and in Central Italy and Sicily, the Ionic order ap­peared, already perfect at its first invention, in the great temple of Artemis at Ephesus. The rains still existing at Paestum, Syracuse, Agrigentum, Selinus, Aegina, and other places, are imperishable monuments of this period. Nor were works of utility neglected, as we see in the fountain of the Peisistratids at Athens, the aqueduct at Samos [aquaeductus], the sewers (wroi/o/xoi) and baths (KoXvfjiS^Opa) at Agrigentum. To this period also belong the great works of the Roman kings. The



commencement of the third and most brilliant period of the art was signalized by the rebuilding of Athens, the establishment of regular principles for the laying out of cities by Hippodamus of Mile­tus, and the great works of the age of Pericles, by the contemporaries of Pheidias, at Athens, Eleusis, and Olympia ; during its course every city of Greece and her colonies was adorned with splendid edifices of every description ; and its termination is marked by the magnificent works of Deinocrates and his contemporaries at Alexandria, vAntioch, and other cities. The first part of the fourth pe­riod saw the extension of the Greek architecture over the countries conquered by Alexander, and, in the West, the commencement of the new style, which arose from the imitation, with some alter­ations, of the Greek forms by Roman architects, to which the conquest of Greece gave, of course, a new impulse. By the time of Augustus, Rome was adorned with every kind of public and pri­vate edifice, surrounded by villas, and furnished with roads and aqueducts ; and these various erections were adorned by the forms of Grecian art; but already Vitruvius begins to complain that the purity of that art is corrupted by the intermix­ture of heterogeneous forms. This process of dete­rioration went on rapidly during the.fifth period, though combined at first with increasing mag­nificence in the scale and number of the buildings erected. The early part of this period is made illus­trious by the numerous works of Augustus, and his successors, especially the Flavii, Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, and the Antonmes, at Rome and in the provinces ; but from the time of the Antonines the decline of the art was rapid and decided. In one department, a new impulse was given to architec­ture by the rise of Christian churches, which were generally built on the model of the Roman Basilica. One of the most splendid specimens of Christian architecture is the church of S. Sophia at Constan­tinople, built in the reign of Justinian, A. d. 537, and restored, after its partial destruction by an earthquake, in 554. But, long before this time, the Greco-Roman style had become thoroughly corrupted, and that new style, which is called the Byzantine, had arisen out of the mixture of Roman architecture with ideas derived from the Northern nations. It is beyond our limits to pursue the history of this and later styles of the art.

Of the ancient writers, from whom our knowledge of the subject is derived, the most important is, of course, Vitruvius. The following are the principal modern works on the general subject: — Winckel- mann, Anmerkungen uber die Baukunst der Alien, 1762; Stieglitz, Arclidologie der Baukunst, 1801, and GescJdchte der Baukunst^ 1827 ; Hirt, Baukunst nacJi den Grunds'dtzen der Alien, 1809, and Ges- chichte der Baukunst bei den Alien, 1821; Muller, Handbucfi der Arclidologie der Kunst, 1825 ; the various works of travels, topography, and anti­ quities, such as those of Stuart, Chandler, Clarke, Dodwell, &c., all the most important of which will be found cited by the authorities referred to; and, for Central Italy, Miiller's Etrusker, and Abeken's Mittelitalien vor der Romiscchen Herr- scliaft. [P. S.]


ARCHON (&pxuv)* The government of Athens appears to have gone through the cycle of changes, which ancient history records as the lot of many other states. It began with monarchy ; nnd

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