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Respecting the operation of ploughing, see agricultura, p. 49. [J. Y.]
ARCA, a chest or coffer. — 1. A chest, in which the Romans were accustomed to place their money: the phrase ex area solvere had the meaning of paying in ready money. (Comp. Cic. ad Ait. i. 9.) These chests were either made of or bound with iron, or other metals. (Juv. xi. 26, xiv. 259.) The name area was usually given to the chests in which the rich kept their money, and was opposed to the smaller loculi (Juv. i. 89), sacculus (Juv. xi. 26), and crumena.
2. Area publica was used under the empire to .signify the city-funds, which were distinct from the aerarium and the fiscus, and the administration of which belonged to the senate. (Vopisc. Aurel. 20.) The name area was, however, also used as equivalent to fiscus,, that is, the imperial treasury: thus, we read of the area frumentaria, area olearia, area vinaria, &c. (Symm. x. 33 ; compare Dig. 50. tit. 4. s. 1.)
3. Area also signified the coffin in which persons were buried (Aur. Vict. De Vir. HL 42 ; Lucan, viii. 736), or the bier on which the corpse was placed previously to burial. (Dig. 11. tit. 7. s. 7.)
4. It was also a strong cell made of oak, in which criminals and slaves were confined. (Cic. Pro Milan, c. 22 ; Festus, s. v. Robum.}
ARCERA, a covered carriage or litter, spread with cloths, which was used in ancient times in Rome, to carry the aged and infirm. It is said to have obtained the name of arcera on account of its resemblance to an area. (Varr. L. L. v. 140, ed. Miiller ; Gell. xx. 1.)
ARCHEION (apxetov} properly means any public place belonging to the magistrates (comp. Herod, iv. 62), but was more particularly applied at Athens to the archive office, where the decrees of the people and other state documents were preserved. This office is sometimes called merely t& &J7/uocrjoj>. (Dem. de Cor. p. 275.) At Athens the archives were kept in the temple of the mother of the gods (i*.T}Tpu>ov}, and the charge of it was intrusted to the president (eiricrTaT^s) of the senate of the Five-hundred. (Dem. de Fals, Leg. p. 381, in Aristoa. i. p. 799 ; Paus. i. 3. § 4.)
ARCHIATER (apxiarpos, compounded of apxos or &pXwz/5 a chief, and mrpos, a physician), a medical title under the Roman emperors, the exact signification of which has been the subject of much discussion ; for while some persons interpret it " the chief of the physicians " (quasi cLpXW r&v larp&v} others explain it to mean "the physician to the prince" (quasi rov apx°VTOS tarpo'i). Upon the whole it seems tolerably certain that the former is the true meaning _ of the word, and for these reasons : — 1. From its etymology it can hardly have any other sense, and of all the words similarly formed (npxireKrw, apxtrpi/cAti/os, apx^TrtcrKOTros^ &c.) there is not one that has any reference to "tJie prince." 2. We find the title applied to physicians who lived at Edessa, Alexandria, &c., where no king was at that time reigning. 3. Galen (de Ther. ad Pis. c. 1, vol. xiv. p. 211, ed. Kiihn) speaks of Andromachus
being appointed "fo rule over" the physicians (&pXeiv), i-e-, in fact, to be "archiater." 4. Augustine (De Civit. Dei, iii. 17) applies the word to Aesculapius, and St. Jerome (metaphorically of course) to our Saviour (xiii. Homil. in S. Luc.\ in both which cases it evidently means " the chief physician." 5. It is apparently synonymous with protomedicus., supra medicos., dominus medicorum, and superpositus medicorum, all which expressions occur in inscriptions, &c., and also with the title Rais *ala U-atebbd, among the Arabians. 6. We find the names of several persons who were physicians to the emperor, mentioned without the addition of the title archiater. 7. The archiatri were divided into Archiairi sancti palatii, who attended on the emperor, and Archiatri populares, who attended on the people ; so that it is certain that all those who bore this title were not " physicians to the prince." The chief argument in favour of the contrary opinion seems to arise from the fact, that of all those who are known to have held the office of Archiatri the greater part certainly were also physicians to the emperor ; but this is only what might a priori be expected, viz. that those who had attained the highest rank in their profession would be chosen to attend upon the prince. *
The first person whom we find bearing this title is Andromachus, physician to Nero,, and inventor of the Theriaca (Galen. I.e. ; Erotian. Lex. Voc. Hippocr. Praef.) : but it is not known whether he had at the same time any sort of authority over the rest of the profession. In fact, the history of the title is as obscure as its meaning, and it is chiefly by means of the laws respecting the medical profession that we learn the rank and duties attached to it. In after times (as was stated above) the order appears to have been divided, and we find two distinct classes of archiatri, viz. those of the palace and those of the people. (Cod. Theodos, xiii. tit. 3 ; De Medicis et Professoribus.') The archiatri sancti palatii were persons of high -rank, who not only exercised their profession, but were judges on occasion of any disputes that might occur among the physicians of the place. They had certain privileges granted to them, e. g. they were exempted from all taxes, as were also their wives and children; they were not obliged to lodge soldiers or others in the provinces ; they could not be put in prison, &c. ; for though these privileges seem at first to have been common to all physicians (Cod. Just. x. tit 52. s. 6. Medicos et maxime Archiatros), yet afterwards they were confined to the archiatri of the palace, and to those of Rome. When they obtained their dismissal from attendance on the emperor, either from old age or any other cause, they retained the title exrarchiatri^ or ex-archiatris. (Cod. x. tit. 52. leg. 6.) The archiatri populares were established for the relief of the poor, and each city was to be provided with five, seven, or ten, according to its size. (Dig. 27. tit. 1. s. 6.) Rome had fourteen, besides one for the vestal virgins, and one for the gymnasia. (Cod. Theodos. /. c.) They were paid by the government, and were therefore obliged to attend their poor patients gratis ; but were allowed to receive fees from the rich. (Cod. Theodos. L c.) The archiatri populares were not appointed by the
* Just as in England the President of the College of Physicians is (or used to be) ex-officio physician to the sovereign.