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(Excursion in Asia Minor, 1838, p. 71) observes that each portion of this instrument is still called "by its ancient Greek name, and adds, that it seems suited only to the light soil prevailing where he observed it, that it is held by one hand only, that the form of the share (vvvis) varies, and that the plough is frequently used without any share. " It is drawn by two oxen, yoked from the pole, and guided by a long reed or thin stick (Kdrpwos), which has a spud or scraper at the end for cleaning the share." See the lowest figure in the woodcut.
Another recent traveller in Greece gives the following account of the plough which he saw in that country—a description approaching still nearer to the •Kt]Kfr'bv 'dporpov of Homer andHesiod. "It is composed," says he, " of two curved pieces of .wood, one longer than the other. The long piece forms the pole, and one end of it being joined to the other piece about a foot from the bottom, divides it into a share, which is cased with iron, and a handle. The share is, besides, attached to the pole by a short'cross-bar of wood. Two oxen, with no other harness than yokes, are joined to the pole, and driven by the ploughman, who holds the handle in his left hand, and the goad in his right." (Hobhouse, Journey through Albania, &c., vol. i. p. 140.) A view of the plain of Elis, representing this plough in use, is given by Mr. S. Stanhope in his Olympia (p. 42).
The yoke and pole used anciently in ploughing did not differ from those employed, for draught in general. Consequently they do not here require any further description. [JuGUM.] To the bottom of the pole, in the compacted plough, was attached the plough-tail, which, according to Hesiod, might be made of any piece of a tree (especially the irp'ivos, i. e. the ilex, or holm-oak), the natural curvature of which fitted it to this use. But in the time and country of Virgil pains were taken to force a tree into that form which was most exactly adapted to the purpose. (Cfeorg. i. 169,170.) The upper end of the buris being held by the ploughman, the lower part, below its junction with the pole, was used to hold the share-beam, which was either sheathed with metal, or driven bare into the ground, according to circumstances.
To these three continuous and most essential parts, the two following are added in the description of the plough by Virgil: —
1. The earth-boards, or mould-boards (aures), rising on each side, bending outwardly, in such a manner as to throw on either hand the soil which had been previously loosened and raised by the share, and adjusted to the share-beam which was made double for the purpose of receiving them: —
" Binae aures, duplici aptantur dentalia dorso."
Accordiiig to Palladius (i. 43), it was desirable to have ploughs both with earth-boards (aurita) and without them (simplicia).
2. The handle (stiva}, which is seen in Fel-lows's woodcut,, and' likewise in the following representation of an ancient Italian plough. Virgil considers this part as used to turn the plough at the end of the furrow. " Stivaque, quae ciirrus a tergo torqueat imos." Serving, however, in his note on this line explains' stiva to mean "the handle by which the plough is directed." It is pro-bable that, as the dentalia, i. e. the two share-beams which Virgil supposes were in the form of the Greek letter A, which he describes by duplici dorso,
the buris was fastened to the left share-beam, and the stiva to the right, so that, instead of the simple plough of the Greeks, that described by Virgil, and used, no doubt, in his country (see the following woodcut), was more like the modern Lancashire plough, which is commonly held behind with both hands. Sometimes, however, the stiva (e'xerA^, Hes. Op. et Dies, 467) was used alone and instead of the tail, as in the Mysian plough above represented. To a plough so constructed the language of Columella was especially applicable, " Arator stivae paene rectus innititur" (i. 9) ; and the expressions of Ovid, "* Stivaeque innixus arator" (Met. viii. 218), and " Inde premens stivam de-signat moenia sulco." (Fast. iv. 825.) In place of " stiva," Ovid also uses the less appropriate term " capulus" (Ep. de Ponto, i. 8. 61) ; "Ipse manu capulum prensi moderatus aratri." When the plough was held either by the stiva alone, or by the buris alone, a piece of wood (manicula) was fixed across the summit, and on this the labourer pressed with, both hands. Besides guiding the plough in a straight line, his duty was to force the share to a sufficient depth into the soil. Virgil alludes to this in the phrase " Depresso aratro " (Georg. i. 45). The cross-bar, which is seen in Mr. Fellows's drawing, and mentioned in Sir J. C. Hobhouse's description, and which passes from the pole to the share for the purpose of giving additional strength, was called <nrdQi], in Latin fulcrum. The coulter (cutter, Plin. //. N. xviii. 48) was used by the Romans as it is with us. It was inserted into the pole so as to depend vertically before the share, cutting through the roots which came in its way, and thus preparing for the more complete loosening and overturning of the soil by the share.
(Caylus, Rec. d'Ant. v. pi. 83. No. 6.) It cor. responds, in all essential particulars, witli the
About the time of Pliny two small wheels (rotae, rotulae) were added to the plough in Rhaetia ; and Servius (1. c.) mentions the use of them in the country of Virgil. The annexed woodcut shows the form of a wheel-plough, as represented on a piece of engraved jasper, of Roman workmanship. It also shows distinctly the temo or pole, the coulter or cutter, the dentale or share-beam, the buris or plough-tail, and the handle or stiva.