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Its length was 11,190 passus, for 11,130 of which it was carried under the earth, and for the remaining 60 passus, within the city, from the Porta Capena to the Porta Trigemina, it was on arches. The distribution of its water began from the Clivus Publicius. (Frontin. 5 ; Liv. ix. 29 ; Diod. xx. 36 ; Aur. Vict. Vir. Illust. 34, who confounds it with the Anio.} No traces of it remain.
2. The Anio Veins was commenced forty years' later, b. c. 273, by the censor M. Curius Dentatus, and was finished by M. Fulvius Flaccus. The expense was defrayed out of the spoils taken from Pyrrhtis. The water was derived from the river Anio, above Tibur, at a distance of twenty Roman miles from the city; but, on account of its windings, its actual length was forty-three miles, of which length less than a quarter of a mile only (namely, 221 passus} was above the ground. There are considerable remains of this aqueduct on the Aurelian wall, near the Porta Maggiore, and also in the neighbourhood of Tivoli. It was built of blocks of peperino stone, and the water-course was lined with a thick coating of cement. (Front. 6 ; Aur. Vict. Vir. III. 43.)
This aqueduct commenced at the side of the. Via Valeria, thirty-six miles from Rome; its
3. The A qua Marcia, one of the most important of the whole, was built by the praetor Q. Marcius Rex, by command of the senate, in b.c. 144. The want of a more plentiful supply of water had been long felt, especially as that furnished by the Anio Vetus was of such bad quality as to be almost unfit for drinking; and, in b.c. 179, the censors, M. Aemilius Lepidus and M. Flaccus Nobilior, had proposed the erection of a new aqueduct ; but the scheme had been defeated, in consequence of Liciniiis Crassus refusing to let it be carried through his lands. (Liv. xl. 51.) The two existing aqueducts had also fallen into decay by neglect, and had been much injured by private persons drawing off the water at different parts of their course. The senate therefore commissioned the praetor Marcius to repair the old aqueducts, and to build a third, which was named after him. Some writers have pretended that the original construction of this aqueduct is to be ascribed to Ancus Marcius, alleging a passage of Pliny (II. N. xxxi. 3. s. 2i), and a medal of the Marcian gens, family Philippus, which bears on the obverse a head with the legend ancvs, and on the reverse a representation of an aqueduct, with the letters aqvaar. between the arches, supporting an equestrian statue with the legend phillippvs : but those who know any thing of the history of Roman family records will understand that this medal bears no evidence to the point in question, and is simply a perpetuation of two of the greatest distinctions of the Marcia yens, their alleged descent from Ancus, and the aqueduct which bore their name ; and Pliny's opinion is simply one of his ludicrous blunders, arising probably from his confounding Marcius Rex with the king Ancus Marcius. (Eckhel, Dodr. Num. Vet. vol. v. p. 248.)
length was Gl,710;|passus, of which only 7463 were above ground ; namely, 528 on solid substructions, and 6935 on arches. It was high enough to supply water to the summit of the Capitoline Mount. It was repaired by Agrippa in his aedileship, b.c. 33 (seebelow, No. 5.), and the volume of its water was increased by Augustus, by means of the water of a spring 800 passus from it: the short aqueduct which conveyed this water was called the Aqua Augusta, but is never enumerated as a distinct aqueduct. Pliny states that the water of the Aqua Marcia was the coldest and most wholesome of all which was brought to Rome ; and Vitruvius and other writers refer to the excellence of the water as being proverbial. Several arches of the Aqua Marcia are still standing. (Frontin. 12 ; Plin. Pl.N. xxxi. 3. s. 24, who diifers from Frontinus in some of the details ; Strab. v. p. 240 ; Vitruv. viii. 3. § 1 ; Dion Cass. xlix. 42 ; Pint. Coriol. 1 ; Properu iii. 22, 24 ; Martial, vi. 42. 16 ; Stat. SUv. i. 5, 25.)
4. The Aqua Tepula, which was built by the censors Cn. Servilius Caepio and L. Cassius Lon-ginus in b. c. 127, began at a spot in the Lucullan or Tusculan land, two miles to the right of the tenth milestone on the Via Latina. It was afterwards connected with
5. The Aqua Julia. Among the splendid public works executed by Agrippa in his aedileship,, B. c. 33, was the formation of a new aqueduct, and the restoration of all the old ones. From a source two miles to the right of the twelfth milestone of the Via Latina, he constructed his aqueduct (the Aqua Julia} first to the Aqua Tepula, in which it was merged as far as the reservoir (piscina} on the Via Latina, seven miles from Rome. From this reservoir the water was carried along two distinct channels, on the same substructions (which were probably the original substructions of the Aqua Tepula, newly restored), the lower channel being called the Aqua Tepula, and the upper the Aqua Julia ; and this double aqueduct again was united with the Aqua Marcia, over the watercourse of which the other two were carried. The monument erected at the junction of these three aqueducts, is still to be seen close to the Porta S. Lorenzo. It bears an inscription referring to the repairs under Caracalla. (See the woodcut below, p. 112.) The whole course of the Aqua, Julia, from its source, amounted to 15,426 passus, partly on massive substructions, and partly on arches. (Frontin. 8, 9, 19.)
6. The Aqua Virgo was built by Agrippa, to supply his baths. From a source in a marshy spot by the eighth milestone on the Via Collatwa, it was conducted by a very circuitous route, chiefly under the ground, to the M. Pincius, whence it was carried on arches to the Campus Martins. Its length was 14,105 passus, of which 12,865 were underground ; in its subterranean course it received the water of numerous springs ; and its water was as highly esteemed for bathing as that of the Aqua Marcia was for drinking. It is one of the two aqueducts on the left bank of the Tiber, which are still in use, though on a much-diminished scale. (See below.) The origin of its name is variously explained. (Frontin. 10; Dion Cass. liv. 11 ; Plin. PI. N. xxxi. 3. s. 25 ; Cassiod. Var. vii. 6 ; Ovid, Trist. iii. 12. 22 ; Martial, v. 20. 9, vi. 42. 18,xi. 47. 6.)