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to civil offices and burdens. This subject is fully treated by Hollweg, Handbuch des Oivilprozesses, p. 350. [G.L.]
APPLICATIONS JUS. [exsilitjm.]
APROSTASIOU GRAPHE (cbrpoo-rao-fou 7pa<5f>rj), an action falling under the jurisdiction of the polemarch, which was brought against those metoeki, or resident aliens, who had neglected to provide themselves with a patron (Trpocrrar^s). This action is stated to have been also brought against those metoeki, who exercised the rights of full citizens, or did not pay the jueroi/ctoz/, a tax of twelve drachmae exacted from resident aliens ; but Meier has remarked that this action was only applicable in such cases, provided that the metoeki had no patron. (Harpocrat. ; Zonar. ; Suid. and the other grammarians; Meier, Ait. Process^ p. 315, &c.)
APSIS or ABSIS (tyfe), in its literal meaning from cctttco, is a fastening of any kind ; for example, the meshes of a net. (Horn. 77. v. 487.) It was ap plied specially to the joining together the extremities of a piece of wood, so a* to give it the shape of a bow ; and hence it came to signify anything of that shape, such as a bow, an arch, or a wheel. (Hes. Op. 424 ; Herod, iv. 72.) A potter's wheel is described, in the Anthology, as kvkxos ax^?5os. The next transition of meaning is to anything vaulted (for example, r) virfivpavia cuf/is, the vault of heaven^ Plat. P/taedr. p. 247, b.) ; and in this sense it was adopted in architecture, first, for any building or portion of a building of a circular form, or vaulted (Plin. Epist. ii. 17. § 18), and more especially for the circular and vaulted end of a Basilica. (Paul. Nol.Ep. 12; Augustin, Ep. 203 ; Isid. Orig. xv. 8.) For other applications of it, all with the general meaning of a vault or curve, see Forcellini. [P. S.]
AQUAEDUCTUS (iSpayuyia), literally, a water-conduit, would, of course, properly describe any channel for the passage of water ; but the word is used especially for the magnificent structures by means of which Rome and other cities of the Roman empire were supplied with water, and which may be described in general terms as a channel, constructed as nearly as possible with a regular declivity from the source whence the water was derived to the place where it was delivered, carried through hills by means of tunnels, and over valleys upon a substruction of solid masonry or arches.
The aqueduct is mentioned by Strabo as among the structures which were neglected by the Greeks, and first brought into use by the Romans (v. p. 235). It will presently be seen that this statement requires some slight modification ; but, if understood of the grand structures we have referred to, it is true enough that the Greeks (before the Roman conquest) had none such, and for the obvious reason, that they had no need of them. There is no occasion to discuss the possibility or impossibility of constructing aqueducts without arches, which is the reason alleged by some writers for their not being used by the Greeks ; there is reason enough in the physical geography of the country. Springs (itpr^ai^ Kpovvoi) were sufficiently abundant to supply the great cities with water ; and great attention was paid to the preservation and adornment of them ; they were converted into public fountains by the formation of a head for their waters, and the erection of an
ornamental superstructure ; and were dedicated to some god or hero. Pausanias (x. 4. § 1) considers no place to deserve the name of city, which has not such a fountain. "We are indebted to the same author and other Greek writers for accounts of some of the most celebrated fountains ; such as that of Theagenes, at Megara (Pans. i. 40. § 1) ; those of Peirene and Lerna at Corinth, where there were many other fountains, as well as a Roman aqueduct erected by Hadrian (ii. 3. §§ 2, 3, 5 ; 4. § 5) ; that in the grove of Aesculapius at Epidaurus (ii. 17. § 5) ; and several others (iv. 31, 32, 34, vii. 5, 21, viii. 13), of which we need only mention the Enneakrounos at Athens, which was constructed by Peisistratus and his sons, and of which Thucydides records the interesting fact, marking the transition from the natural springs to the artificial fountain, and showing the importance attached even to the former, that "it was called Callirhoe formerly, when the springs ivere visible ((f)av€pwv r<av ir^ywv oixt&v^ Thuc. ii. 15 ; Paus. i. 14. § 1) : to this enumeration might be added the springs of salt-water in certain temples ; as in those of Erechtheus at Athens, and of Poseidon Hippius at Mantineia. (Paus. i. 26. § 5, viii. 10. §4.)
In these cases we have no reason to suppose that there was any thing more than a fountain over or close to the springs, forming a head for the water derived, either immediately, or by very short channels, from them. But we are not without examples of constructions more nearly approaching the Roman aqueducts in kind, though not in. degree. That the Greeks, at a very early period, had some powers of hydraulic engineering is shown by the clraiimge tunnels of the lake Copai's, and the similar works of Phaeax at Agrigentum [emissaritjm] ; and we have an instance of a channel for water being carried through a mountain, to supply the city of Samos. The height of the mountain was 150 orguiae (900 Greek feet) ;. the length of the tunnel was seven stadia (7-8ths of a Roman mile, or about 1420 yards) ; its section was a square of eight Greek feet. The actual channel for the water was cut below this, and was, if the text is right, thirty Greek feet deep, and three wide ; the water passed through pipes (&« <r<a\i]v<av) from a copious spring, and was thus brought to the city. (Herod, iii. 60.) Mitller conjectures that the work was one of those executed by Poly crates (ArchaoL d.Kunst, § 81).
The chief regulations among the Greeks respecting fountains and springs, whether in town or country, were the following : — Water might be fetched from the public fountains or wells to a distance of four stadia ; beyond this, persons must dig their own wells ; but if any one dug to a depth of ten orguiae (or, according to Plato, f^^XP1 ttjs itepa/uiSos 7^5-) without finding water, he was permitted to take from his neighbour's well a pitcher of six chocs twice a day (Plut. Sol. 23 ; Plat. Leg. viii. p. 844, a, b).
The Romans were in a verjr different position, with respect to the supply of water, from most of the Greek cities. They, at first, had recourse to the Tiber, and to wells sunk in the city ; but the water obtained from those sources was very unwholesome, and must soon have proved insufficient, from the growth of the population, to say nothing of the supplies afterwards required for the naumachiae and public baths. It was this neces-