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On this page: Apaulia – Apeleutheri – Aperta Navis – Apex – Aphlaston – Aphormes Dike – Aphractus – Aphrodisia



tim was removed ; when no objections were raised,, the father, or he who supplied his place, was obliged to establish by oath that the child was the offspring of free-born parents, and citizens of Athens* (Isaeus, De Haered. Ciron. p. 100. §19 ; Bemosth. c. Eubul. p. 1315.) After the victim was sacrificed, the phratores gave their votes, which they took from the altar of Jupiter Phra-trius. When the majority voted against the re­ception, the cause might be tried before one of the courts of Athens; and if the claims of the child were found unobjectionable, its name, as well as that of the father, was entered in the register of the phratria, and those who had wished to effect the exclusion of the child were liable to be punished. (Pemosth. c. Macart. p. 1(078.) Then followed the distribution of wine, and of the victim, of which every phrator received his share ; and poems were recited by the elder boys, and a prize was given to him who acquitted himself the best on the occasion. (Plat. Tim. p. 21, 6.) On this day, also,' illegitimate children on whom the privileges of Athenian citizens were to be bestowed, as well as children adopted by citizens, and newly created citizens were introduced ; but the last, it appears, eould only be received into a phratria when they nad previously been adopted by a citizen ; and their children, when born by a mother who was a citizen, had a legitimate claim to be inscribed in the phratria of their grandfather, on their mother's side. (Platner, Beitrage, p. 168.) In later times, however, the difficulties of being admitted into a phratria seem to have been greatly diminished.

Some writers have added a fourth day to this festival, under the name of eVigSa (Hesj^ch. s. v. 'AiraTovpia,: and Simplicius on Aristot. Phy.s. iv. p. 167. a.); but this is no particular day of the iestival, for e-rngSa signifies nettling else but a day subsequent to any festival. (See Rhunken, Ad Tim. Lex. Plat p. 119.) [L. S.]

APAULIA. [matrimonium.]

APELEUTHERI (cwrcAeMepoi). [LlBERTi.]

APERTA NAVIS. [navis.]

APEX, a cap worn by the flainines and salii at Rome. The essential part of the apex, to which alone the name properly belonged, was a pointed piece of olive-wood, the base of which was sur­rounded with a lock of wool. This was worn on the top of the head, and was held there either by fillets only, or, as was more'commonly the .case,

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by the aid of a cap, which fitted the head, and was also fastened by means of two strangs or bands, which were called apicuia (Festus,, s. u.), or of-fendices (Festus, s. v.\ though the latter word is also interpreted to mean a kind of button, by which the strings were fastened under the chin. (Comp. Serv. ad Virg. Aen. ii. 683, viii. 664, x. 270.)

The flamines were forbidden by law to go into public, or even into the open air without the apex (Gell. x. 15), and hence we find the expression of alicui apicem dialem imponere used as equivalent to the appointment of a flamen dialis. (Liv. vi. 41.) Sulpicius was de? rived of the priesthood, only be­cause the apex fell from his head whilst he was sacrificing. (Val. Max. i. 1. § 4.)

Dionysius (ii. 70) describes the cap as being of a conical form. On ancient monuments we see it round as well as conical. From its various forms, as shown on bas-reliefs and on coins of the Roman emperors, who as priests were entitled to wear it,


we have selected six for the annexed woodcut. The middle figure is from a bas-relief, showing one of the salii witb a rod in his right hand. The Albogalmis., 01 albus galerus was a white cap worn by the flamen dialis, made of the skin of a white victim sacrificed to Jupiter, and had the apex fastened to it by means of an olive-twig. (Festus, s.r. albogalerus; Gell. x. 15.)

From apex was formed the epithet applied to the ilamen dialis by Ovid (Fast. iii. 197).

APHLASTON (#<J>A.a<rroj/). [navis.]

APHORMES DIKE (ctyoprfs Sf/cij), was the action brought against a banker or money-lender (rpaire^irrjs)^ to recover funds advanced for the purpose of being employed as banking capital. Though such moneys were also styled irapaKaraO^ /cat, or deposits, to distinguish them from the pri­ vate capital of the banker (ISta cu^op/UTJ), there is an essential difference between the actions a<pop/m,ris and TrapaKaraO-riicys., as the latter implied that the defendant had refused to return a deposit intrusted to him, not upon the condition of his paying a stated interest for its use, as in the former case, but merely that it might be safe in his keeping till the affairs of the plaintiff should enable him to resume its possession in security. [paracata- thece'.] The former action was of the class Trpos Tim, and came under the jurisdiction of the thcsmo- thetae. The speech of Demosthenes in behalf of Phormio was made in a Trapaypaty'f) against an action of this kind. . [J. S. M.]

APHRACTUS. [navis.]

APHRODISIA ('A^ofo'cna), festivals cele­brated in honour of Aphrodite, in a great number of towns in Greece, but particularly in the island of Cyprus. Her most ancient temple was at Paphos, which was built by Aerias or Cinyras, in whose family the priestly dignity was hereditary. (Tacit. Flint, ii. 3, Annal. iii.^62 ; Maxim. Tyr. Serin. 83.) No bloody sacrifices were allowed to be offered to her, but only pure firo, flowers, and incense (Virg. Aen. i. 116) ; arid therefore, when Tacitus (Hist. ii. 3) speaks of victims, we must either suppose, with Ernesti, that they were killed merely that the priest might inspect their intestines, or for the pur­pose of ^ affording a feast to the persons present at the festival. At all events, however, the altar of the goddess was not allowed to be polluted with the blood of the victims, which were mostly he-goats. Mysteries were also celebrated at Paphos in honour of Aphrodite ; and those who were ini-

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