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From what has been already stated, it will have been observed, that questions requiring a previous decision, would frequently arise upon the allegations of the plea ; and that the plea to the action in particular would often contain matter that would tend essentially to alter, and, in some cases, to reverse the relative positions of the parties. In the first case, a trial before the dicasts would be granted by the magistrate whenever he was loth to incur the responsibility of decision ; in the second, a cross-action might be instituted, and carried on separately, though, perhaps, simultaneously with the original suit. Cases would also sometimes occur in which the defendant, from considering the indictment as an unwarrantable aggression, or, perhaps, one best repelled by attack, would be tempted to retaliate upon some delinquency of his opponent, utterly unconnected with the cause in hand, and to this he would be, in most cases, able to resort. An instance of each kind will be briefly given, by citing the common parayraphe, as a cause arising upon a dilatory plea ; a cross-action for assault (cu/aas) upon a primary action for the same (Dem. in Ev. et Mnesib. p. 1153) ; -and a So/ajuao'ia, or "judicial examination of the life or morals " of an orator upon an impeachment for misconduct in an embassy (TrapaTrpecrg&ta). (Aesch. in Timarch.) All causes of this secondary nature (and there was hardly one of any kind cognisable by the Attic courts, that might not occasionally rank among them) were, when viewed in their relation with the primary action, comprehended by the enlarged signification of antigraphe, or, in other words, this term, inexpressive, of form or substance, is indicative of a repellent or retaliative quality, that might be incidental to a great variety of causes. The distinction, however, that is implied by antigraphe, was not merely verbal and unsubstantial ; for we are told, in order to prevent frivolous suits on the one hand, and unfair elusion upon the other, the loser in a paragraph^ or cross-action upon a private suit, was condemned by a special law to pay the 67rcoge\tct, rateable upon the valuation of the main cause, if he failed to obtain the votes of one-fifth of the jury, and certain court fees (irpvrat/e^a) not originally incident to the suit. That there was a similar provision in public causes, we may presume from analogy, though we have no authority to determine the matter. (Meier, Att. Process., p. 625.) [J.S. M.]
ANTIGRAPHEIS (cw^po^ew). [GiiAM-
ANTINOEIA (avrivteia), annual festivals and quinquennial games, which the Roman emperor Hadrian instituted in honour of his favourite, Antinous, after he was drowned in the Nile, or, according to others, had sacrificed himself for his sovereign, in a fit of religious fanaticism. The festivals were celebrated in Bithynia, and at Man- tineia, in which places he was worshipped as a god. (Spartian. Hadrian, c. 14 ; Dion Cass. Ixix. 10 ; Pans. viii. 9. § 4.) [L. S.J
ANTIPHERNA (avrtyepva). [Dos.]
ANTLIA (wrXla), any machine for raising water ; a pump. The annexed figure shows a machine which is still used on the river Eissach in the Tyrol, the ancient Atagis. As the current puts the wheel in motion, the jars on its margin are successively immersed and filled with water. When they reach the top, the water is sent into
a trough, from which it is conveyed to a distance, and chiefly used for irrigation.
Lucretius (v. 517) mentions a machine contracted on this principle: — " Ut fluvios versure rotas atque haustra videmus."
In situations where the water was at rest, as in a pond or -a well, or where the current was too slow and feeble to put the machine in motion, it was constructed so as to be wrought by animal force, and slaves or criminals were commonly employed for the purpose (els avrXiav KaraSiKa-a-Qrivai, Artemid. Oneiroc. i. 50 ; in antliam con-demnare, Suet. Tib. 51.) Five such machines are described by Vitruvius, in addition to that which has been already explained, and which, as he observes, was turned sine operarum calcatu-ra^ ipsius fluminis impulsu. These five were, 1. the tympanum ; a tread-wheel, wrought liominibus calcantibus: 2. a wheel resembling that in the preceding figure ; but having, instead of pots, wooden boxes or buckets (modioii quadrati\ so arranged as to form steps for those who trod the wheel: 3. the chain-pump : 4. the cochlea, or Archimedes' screw: and 5. the ctesibica machina, or forcing-pump. (Vitruv. x. 4—7; Drieberg, Pneum. Erfindunyen der Griechen, p. 44—50.)
On the other hand, the antlia with which Martial (ix. 19) watered his garden, was probably the pole and bucket universally employed in Italy, Greece, and Egypt. The pole is curved, as shown in the annexed figure ; because it is the stem of a