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two. els ai/Ti5o<nz>, Lysias ' rov 'ASiWrov, p. 745.) It may be presumed that he then formally repeated his proposal, and that the other party stated his objections, which, if obviously sufficient in law, might, perhaps, authorise the magistrate to dismiss the case ; if otherwise, the legal resistance, and preparations for bringing the cause before the dicasts, would naturally begin here. In the latter case, or. if the exchange were accepted, the law directed the challenger to repair to the houses and lands of his antagonist, and secure himself, as all the claims and liabilities of the estate were to be transferred, from fraudulent encumbrances of the real property, by observing what mortgage placards (opoi\ if any, were fixed upon it, and against clandestine removal of the other effects, by sealing up the chambers that contained them, and, if he pleased, by putting- bailiffs in the mansion. (Dem. c. Phaenipp. pp. 1040, 1041.) His opponent was, at the same time, informed, that he was at liberty to deal in like manner with the estate of the challenger, and received notice to attend the proper tribunal on a fixed day, to take the usual cath. The entries here described seem, in contemplation of law, to have been a complete effectuation of the exchange. (Dem. c. Mid. p. 540, c. Phaenipp. p. 1041. 25), and it does not appear that primarily there was any legal necessity for a further ratifi­ cation by the dicasts ; but, in practice, this must always have been required by the conflict of interests between the parties. The next pro­ ceeding was the oath, which was taken by both parties, and purported that they would faithfully discover all their property, except shares held in the silver mines at Laurion ; for these were not rated to leiturgise or property-taxes, nor conse­ quently liable to the exchange. In pursuance of this agreement, the law enjoined that they should exchange correct accounts of their respective assets (a7r04>a<re<s) within three days ; but in practice the time might be extended by the consent of the challenger. After this, if the matter were still uncompromised, it would assume the shape and follow the course of an ordinary .lawsuit [DicE'J, under the conduct of the magistrate within whose jurisdiction it had originally come. The verdict of the dicasts, when adverse to the challenged, seems merely to have rendered imperative the first de­ mand of his antagonist, viz. that he should submit to the exchange or undertake the charge in ques­ tion ; and as the alternative was open to the former, and a compromise might be acceded to by the lat­ ter, at any stage of the proceedings, we may infer that the exchange was rarely, if ever, finally ac­ complished. The irksomeness, however, of the se­ questration, during which the litigant was pre­ cluded from the use of his own property, and dis­ abled from bringing actions for embezzlement and the like against others (for his prospective reim­ bursement was reckoned a part of the seques­ trated estate, Dem. c. Apliob. ii. p. 841, c. Mid. p. 540), would invariably cause a speedy, perhaps, in most cases, a fair adjustment of the burdens incident to the condition of a wealthy Athenian. (Bb'ckh, Publ. Econ. of Athens, pp. 580—583, 2nd ed.) - . [J. S. M.]

ANTIGONEIA (avriySvcia), sacrifices insti­tuted by Aratus and celebrated at Sicyon with paeans, processions, and contests, in. honour of Antigonus Doson, with whom Aratus formed an



alliance for the purpose of thwarting the plans of Cleomenes. (Plut. Cleom. 16, Arat,9 45 ; Polyb. xxviii. 16, xxx. 20.) [L. S.]

e ANTIGRAPHE' (avrtypa^), originally sig­nified the writing put in by the defendant, in all causes, whether public or private, in answer to the indictment or bill of the prosecutor. From this signification, it was applied by an easy transition to the substance as well as the form of the reply, both of which are also indicated by aj/rw/^ocria, which means, primarily, the oath corroborating the statement of the accused. Harpocration has re­marked that antigrapke might denote, as antomosia does in its more extended application, the bill and affidavit of either party ; and this remark seems to be justified by a passage of Plato. (Apolog. Soc. p. 27. c.) Schdmann, however, maintains {Aft. Process, p. 465) that antigrapht was only used in this signification in the case of persons who laid claim to an unassigned inheritance. Here, neither the first nor any other claimant could appear in the character of a prosecutor ; that is, no 5iK7) or eyK/V^a could be strictly said to be directed by one competitor against another, when all came forward voluntarily to the tribunal to defend their several titles. . This circumstance Schbmann has suggested as a reason why the documents of each claimant were denoted by the term in question.

Perhaps the word " plea," though by no means a coincident term, may be allowed to be a tolerably proximate rendering of antigraphe. Of pleas there can be only two kinds, the dilatory, and those to the action. The former, in Attic law, comprehends all such allegations as, by asserting the incom-petency of the court, the disability of the plaintiff, or privilege of the defendant, and the like, would have a tendency to show that the cause in its present state could not be brought into court (^ slcrarywyLjjLQv eTi/cu t^\v siktji'') ; the latter, every­thing that could be adduced by way of denial, ex­cuse, justification, and defence generally. It must be, at the same time, kept in mind, that the process called " special pleading," was at Athens supplied by the magistrate holding the anacrisis, at which both parties produced their allegations, with the evidence to substantiate them ; and that the object of this part of the proceedings was, under the directions, and with the assistance of the magistrate, to prepare and enucleate the question for the dicasts. The following is an instance of the simplest form of indictment and plea:—• " Apollodorus,, the son of Pasion of Acharnae, against Stephanas, son of Menecles of Acharnae, for perjury. The penalty rated, a talent. Ste-phanus bore false witness against me, when he gave in evidence the matters in the tablets. Ste-phanus, son of Menecles of Acharnae. I witnessed truly, when I gave in evidence the things in the tablet." (Dem. in Steph. i. p. 1115.) The plead­ings might be altered during the anacrisis ; but once consigned to the echinus, they, as well as all the other accompanying documents, were pro­tected by the official seal from any change by the litigants. On the day of trial, and in the presence of the dicasts, the echinus was opened, and the plea was then read by the clerk of the court, toge­ther with its antagonist bill. Whether it was preserved afterwards as a public record, which we know to have been the case with respect to the in some causes, we are not informed.

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