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gmally applied to any bearers of burdens, and next, to compulsory service of any kind. [P. S.]
ANGIPORTUS, or ANGTPORTUM, a nar row lane between two rows of houses ; such a lane might have no issue at all, or end in a private house, so as to be what the French call a cul-de- s«c, or it might terminate at both ends in some public street. The ancients derived the word from angustus and portus, and explain it as mean ing, originally, the narrow entrance to a port. (Fest. p. 17. ed. M tiller ; Varro, De L. L. v. 145, vi. 41 ; Ulpian, in Dig. De Signif. Verb. 59.) The number of such narrow courts, closes, or lanes seems to have been considerable in ancient Rome. (Cic. de Div. i. 32, p. Mil. 24, ad Heren. iv. 51 ; Plaut. Pseud, iv. 2. 6, ap. Non. iii. 1 ; Ter. Adelph. iv. 2. 39 j Horat. Carm.L 25. 10 ; Catull. 58. 4.) [L. S.]
ANGUSTUS CLAVUS. [clavus.]
ANNALES MAXIMI. [pontifex.]
ANNONA is used to signify, 1. The produce of the year in corn, fruit, wine, &c., and hence, 2. Provisions in general, especially the corn which, in the latter years of the republic, was collected in the storehouses of the state, and sold to the poor at a cheap rate in times of scarcity ; and which, under the emperors, was distributed to the people gra tuitously, or given as pay and rewards. [CoN- giarium ; frumentatio ; praefectus an- nonae.] [P. S.]
ANNULUS (<5aKTv\ios\ a ring. Every freeman in Greece appears to have used a ring ; and, at least in the earliest times, not as an ornament, but as an article for use, as the ring always served as a seal. How ancient the custom of wearing rings among the Greeks was, cannot be ascertained ; though it is certain, as even Pliny (H. N. xxxiii. 4) observes, that in the Homeric poems there are no traces of it. In works of fiction, however, and in those legends in which the customs of later ages are mixed up with those of the earliest times, we find the most ancient heroes described as wearing rings. (Pans. i. 17. § 3, x. 30. § 2 ; Eurip. Ipliig. Aid. 154, Hippol. 859.) But it is highly probable that the custom of wearing rings was introduced into Greece from Asia, where it appears to have been almost universal. (Herod, i. 195 ; Plat, de Re Publ. ii. p. 359.) In the time of Solon seal-rings (o^/xryTSes), as well as the practice of counterfeiting them, seem to have been rather common, for Diogenes Laertius (i. 57) speaks of a law of Solon which forbade the artist to keep the form of a seal (crtypayis') which he had sold. (Instances of counterfeited seals are given in Beckftr's Ckari-fdes9 ii. p. 217.) Whether, however, it was customary as early as the time of Solon to wear rings with precious stones on which figures were engraved, may justly be doubted ; and it is much more probable that at that time the figures were cut in the metal of the ring itself, a custom which was never abandoned altogether. Rings without precious stones were called &fyr}(f>oi9 the name of the gem being vj/%)os or cr^payis. (Artemidor. Oneiro-crit. ii. 5.) In later times rings were worn more as ornaments than as articles for use, and persons now were no longer satisfied with one, but wore two, three, or even more rings ; and instances are recorded of those who regularly loaded their hands with rings. (Plat. Hipp. Min. p. 368 ; Aristoph. Ecclcs. 632, Nub. 332, with the Schol.; Dinarch. in, Demostk. p. 29 ; Diog. Laert. v. 1.) Greek
women likewise used to wear rings, but not so frequently as men ; the rings of women also appear to have been less costly than those of men, for some are mentioned which were made of amber, ivory, &c. (Artemid. I. c.) Rings were mostly worn on the fourth finger (Trapa^uetros, Pint. Sym-pos. Fragm. lib. iv. ; Gellius, x. 10). The Lacedaemonians are said to have used iron rings at all times. (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 4.) With the exception perhaps of Sparta, the law does not appear to have ever attempted in any Greek state to counteract the great partiality for this luxury ; and nowhere in Greece does the right of wearing a gold ring appear to have been confined to a particular order or class of citizens.
The custom of wearing rings was believed to have been introduced into Rome by the Sabines, who are described in the early legends as wear-ing gold rings with precious stones (gemmati anmdi) of great beauty. (Liv. i. 11 ; Dionys. ii. 38.) Florus (i. 5) states that it was introduced from Etruria in the reign of Tarquinius Priscus, and Pliny (L c.) derives it from Greece. The fact that among the statues of the Roman kings in the capitol, two, Numa and Servius Tullius, were represented with rings, can scarcely be adduced as an argument for their early use, as later artists would naturally represent the kings with such insignia as characterized the highest magistrates in later times. But at whatever timo rings may have become customary at Rome, thus much is certain, that at first they were always ot iron, that they were destined for the same purpose as in Greece, namely, to be used as seals, and that every free Roman had a right to use such a ring. This iron ring was used down to the last period of the republic by such men as loved the simplicity of the good old times. Marius wore an iron ring hi his triumph over Jugurtha, and several noble families adhered to the ancient custom, and never wore gold ones. (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 6.)
When senators in the early times of the republic were sent as ambassadors to a foreign state, they wore during the time of their mission gold rings, which they received from the state, and which were perhaps adorned with some symbolic representation of the republic, and might serve as a state-seal. But ambassadors used gold rings only in public ; in private they wore their iron ones. (Plin. xxxiii. 4.) In the course of time it became customary for all the senators, chief magistrates, and at last for the equites also, to wear a gold seal-ring. (Liv. ix. 7. 46, xxvi. 36 ; Cic. c. V&rv. iv. 25 ; Liv. xxiii. 12 ; Flor. ii. 6.) This right of wearing a gold ring, which was subsequently called the jus anmdi aurei, or the jus anmdorum, remained for several centuries at Rome the exclusive privilege of senators, magistrates, and equites, while all other persons continued to use iron ones. (Appian, de Reb. Pun. 104.) Magistrates and governors of provinces seem to have had the right of conferring upon inferior officers, or such persons as had distinguished themselves, the privilege of wearing a gold ring. Verres thus presented his secretary with a gold ring in the assembly at Syracuse. (Cic. c. Verr. iii. 76, 80, ad Fain. x. 32 ; Suet. Caes. 39.) During the -empire the right of granting the annulus aureus belonged to the emperors, and some of them wera not very scrupulous in conferring this privilege. Augustus gave it to Mena, a freedman, and to