The Ancient Library

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On this page: Analemma – Anapiesmata – Anathe – Anatocismus – Anaumachiou Graphe – Anaxagoreia – Anchisteia – Anci Le – Androlepsia – Andronitis – Angaria



was differently fixed by law, according to the nature of the charge. In cases of murder, the period was never less than three months, and in others the trial in court commenced on the thirtieth day after the beginning of the anacrisis, as, e. g. in the St/cat spaviKai, e^iTropJKcu, fteraAAt- /ecu, and irpoiKos (Harpocrat. s. v. e^^voi Si'/ccu ; Pollux, viii. 63, 101), and the day fixed for the trial was called Kvpia rov v6pov. (Demosth. c. Mid. p. 544.) In other cases, the day was fixed by the magistrate who conducted the anacrisis. But either party might petition for a postponement of the trial, and the opposite party might oppose the petition by an oath that the ground on which the delay was sought for, was not valid, or un­ satisfactory. (Harpocrat. s.v.avQvircajjioa'ia ; Pollux, viii. 60.) Through such machinations, the deci­ sion of a case might be delayed to the detriment of justice ; and the annals of the Athenian courts are not wanting in numerous instances, in which the ends of justice were thwarted in this manner for a number of years. (Demosth. c. Mid. p. 541 ; comp. Meierand Schomann, DerAtt. Proc. p. 622 ; C. F. Hermann, Griecli. Staatsaltli. § 141 ; Scho- inan, Antiquit. Jur. publ. Graec. p. 279 ; Wachs- muth, Hellen. Alterthumskunde^ ii. p. 262, &c. 2nd edit.) The examination which an archon un­ derwent before he entered on his office, was like­ wise called avaitpuns. [L. S.]

ANALEMMA (aj/aiV^/m), in its original meaning, is any thing raised or supported; it is applied in the plural to walls built on strong foundations. (Hesych. Suid. s. v.) Vitruvius uses the word to describe an instrument which, by marking the lengths of the shadows of a fixed gnomon, showed the different altitudes of the sun at the different periods of the year. (Vitruv. ix. 7, 8. s. 6, 7, Schneider.) It must not be con­ founded with the modern analemma, which is much more complicated and precise than the instrument described by Vitruvius. [P. S.]

ANAPIESMATA. [theatrum.]

ANATHE;MATA (waQfaara.} [donaria.]


ANAUMACHIOU GRAPHE (avai^ax^ov ypa<pi}\ was an impeachment of the trierarch who had kept aloof from action while the rest of the fleet was engaged. From the personal na- ture of the offence and the punishment, it is obvious that this action could only have been di­ rected against the actual commander of the ship, whether he was the sole person appointed to the office, or the active partner of the perhaps many crwreAeTs, or the mere contractor (6 yiucrflco- erc^ez/os). In a cause of this kind, the strategi would be the natural and official judges. The punishment prescribed by law for this offence was a modified atimia, by which the criminal and his descendants were deprived of their political franchise ; but, as we learn from Andocides, were allowed to retain possession of their property. (De Myst. p. 10. 22, ed. Steph. ; Petit. Leg. Att. p. 667.) [J. S. M.]

ANAXAGOREIA (Ayaj-a-yfyeta), a day of recreation for all the youths at Lampsacus, which took place once every year, in compliance, it was said, with a wish expressed by Anaxagoras, who, after being expelled from Athens, spent the re­ mainder of his life here. This continued to be ob­ served even in the time of Diogenes Laertius. (Anaxag. c. 10.) [L. S.]


ANCHISTEIA (byxurrela'). [here*]

ANCI LE. [salii.] ANCILLA. [servus.] A'NCORA. [navis.] A'NKULE (&7iri5\u). [hasta.] ANDABATAE. [gladiator.] ANDREIA (a*/5pe?a). [syssitia.] A'NDRIAS (avSpfas). [statuaria.] ANDROGEO'NIA (5A*/Spoyec^a), a festival with games, held every year in the Cerameicus at Athens, in honour of the hero Androgeus, son of Minos, who had overcome all his adversaries in the festive games of the Panathenaea, and was after­wards killed by his jealous rivals. (Pans. i. 27. § 9; Apollod. iii. 15/§ 7 ; Hygin. Fab. 41 ; Diod. iv. 60, 61.) According to Hesychius, the hero also bore the name of Eurygyes (the possessor of ex­tensive lands), and under this title games were celebrated in his honour, 6 eV Evpvyvy ojy&v. (Hesych. vol. i. p. 1332 ; K. F. Hermann, Gottes-dienst. Altertli. d. Griecken, § 62, n. 22. [L. S.]

ANDROLEPSIA (foSpo^ta or w8po\fi- tywv\ a legal means by which the Athenians were enabled to take vengeance upon a community in which an Athenian citizen had been murdered. For when the state or city in whose territory the murder had been committed, refused to bring the murderer to trial, the law allowed the Athenians to take possession of three individuals of that state or city, and to have them imprisoned at Athens, as hostages, until satisfaction was given, or the murderer delivered up, and the property found upon the persons thus seized was confiscated. (Demosth. c. A.ristocr. p. 647 ; Harpocrat. s. v. ; Pollux, viii. 40 ; Suid. and Etym. M. s. v. ; Bekker, Anecdot. p. 213.) The persons entrusted with the office of seizing upon the three hos­ tages, were usualty the trierarchs, and the com­ manders of ships of war. (Demosth. De Coron. Trier, p. 1232.) This Athenian custom is analo­ gous to the darigatio of the Romans. (Liv. viii. 14.) [L. S.]

ANDRONITIS. [DoMus, greek.]

ANGARIA (ayyapzia., Hclt. ayyapfyov) is a word borrowed from the Persians, signifying a sj^stem of posting, which was used among that people, and which, according to Xenophon, was established by Cyrus. Horses were provided, at certain distances, along the principal roads of the empire ; so that couriers (&yyapoi\ who also, of course, relieved one another at certain distances, could proceed without interruption, both night and day, and in all weathers. (Herod, viii. 98 ; iii. 126 ; Xen. Cyrop. viii. 6. § 17; Suid. s. v.~) It may easily be supposed that, if the government arrangements failed in any point, the service of providing horses was made compulsory on individuals ; and hence the word came to mean compulsory service in for­ warding royal messages ; and in this sense it was adopted by the Romans under the empire, and is frequently found in the Roman laws. The Roman angaria, also called cmgariarum exhibitio or prae- statio, included the maintenance and supply, not only of horses, but of ships and messengers, in for­ warding both letters and burdens ; it is defined as a personcde munus; and there was no ground of exemption from it allowed, except by the favour of the emperor. (Dig. 50. tit. 4. s. 18. §§ 4, 29 ; tit. 5. s. 10, 11; 49, tit. 18. s. 4. § 1 ; Cod. Theod. 8. tit. 5 ; Cod. Justin. 12. tit. 51.)

According to Suidas, the Persian word was ori-

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