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AMPHORA.

art. Aries.*) Both these amphitheatres belong pro­bably to the time of the Antonines. (Maffei, de Ampli. Gall.} The amphitheatre at Pola stands on the side of a hill, and is higher on one side than on the other. There is little to remark respecting the other amphitheatres, except that a fragment of an inscription, found in that at Capua, informs us that it was built under Hadrian, at the cost of the inhabitants of the city, and was dedicated by Antoninus Pius ; and, concerning that of Pompeii, that the earthquake, which preceded the eruption by which the city was buried, injured the amphi­theatre so much, that antiquarians have been dis­appointed in looking for any new information from it ; there is an excellent description of it in the work entitled Pompeii, vol. i. c. 9. .There are traces of amphitheatres of a ruder kind, chiefly of earth, in various parts of our own country, as at Dor­chester, SilChester, Caeiieon, and Redruth.

IV. Uses of the Amphitheatre.—This part of the subject is treated of under gladiatores, naumachia, and venationes. This is not the place to discuss the influence of the spectacles of the amphitheatre on the character and destinies of the Roman people : some good remarks on the subject will be found in the Library of Entertain­ing Knowledge, Menageries, vol. ii. c. 12. [P. S.] AMPHOMO'SIA. [amphiorkia.] AM'PHORA (autyopevs, old form otftc/H^opeus, Horn. II. xxiii. 107 ; Od. x. 164, et alib. ; Schol. in Apoll. Rhod. iv. 1187 ; Simon, in Anth. Pal. xiii. 19). A large vessel, which derived its name from its being made with a handle on each side of the neck (from a/u,</n, on both sides, and (pepw to carry}, whence also it was called diota, that is, a vessel with hvo ears (Si'coros, Sicoros trrd^os or /caSicr/cos, Plat. Hipp. Maj. p. 288, d. ; Ath. xi. p. 473 ; Moeris s. v. ct^opea ; Hor. Car in. i. 9. 8). The form and size varied, but it was generally made tall and narrow, and terminating in a point, which could be let into a stand or into the ground, to keep the vessel upright; several amphorae have been found in this position in the cellars at Pom­peii. The following cut represents amphorae from the Townley and Elgin collections in the British Museum.

AMPHORA.

The usual material of the amphora was earthen­ware (Hor. de Ar. Poet. 21), whence it was also called testa (Carm. i. 20. 2) : but Homer mentions them of gold and of stone (II. xxiii. 92 ; Od. xxiv. 74, xiii. 105) : and in later times glass amphorae were not uncommon (Petron. 34) ; several have been found at Pompeii: Nepos mentions, as a great rarity, amphorae of onyx, as large as Chian cadi (ap. Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 7. s. 12). The amphora was often made without handles. The name of the maker, or of the place of manufacture, was some­times stamped upon them : this is the case with two in the Elgin collection, Nos. 238 and 244. [fictile.]

Amphorae were used for the preservation of various things which required careful keeping, such as wine, oil, honey, grapes, olives, and other fruits (Horn. //. xxiii. 170 ; Cato, R. R. x. 2 Colum. R. R. xii. 16, 47 ; Hor. Epod. ii. 15 ; Cic. c. Verr. iv. 74); for pickled meats (Xen. Anab. v. 4. § 28) ; and for molten gold and lead (Herod, iii. 96 ; Nepos, Hann. 9). There is in the British Museum a vessel resembling an amphora, which contains the fine African sand used by the athle-tae. It was found, with seventy others, in the baths of Titus, in 1772. Respecting the use of the amphora in the streets of Rome, see Petron. 70, 79 ; Pfopert. iv. 5. 73 ; Macrob. Sat. ii. 12 ; and the commentators on Lucretius, iv. 1023. Homer and Sophocles mention amphorae as used for cinerary urns (II. xxiii. 91, 92 ; Soph. Fr. 303, Dind.) ; and a discovery was made at Salona, in 1825, which proves that they were used as coffins : the amphora was divided in half in the direction of its length to receive the corpse, and the two halves were put together again and buried in the earth: the skeletons were found still entire. (Steinbiichel, Alterthum. p. 67.) Amphorae of par­ticular kinds were used for various other pur­poses, such as the amphora nasiterna for irrigation (Cato, R. R. 11. § 3), and the amphora spartea, which was perhaps a wicker amphora for gather­ing grapes in. (Ibid. § 2.)

There is an interesting account of the use of the amphora among the Egyptians, in Sir G. Wil-kinson's Ancient Egyptians., vol. ii. pp. 157—160.

The most important employment of the amphora was for the preservation of wine : its use for this purpose is fully described under vinum. The following woodcut, taken from a painting on the wall of a house at Pompeii, represents the mode of filling the amphora from a wine-cart.

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