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of representatives were not strictly defined, and varied at different times, if indeed they are always correctly distinguished by the authors who allude to them. The e/c/cA^tr/a, or general assembly, in­cluded not only the classes mentioned, but also those who had joined in the sacrifices and were consulting the god, and as there was a large mul­titude annually collected at the Amphictyonic ses­sion at Thermopylae, it was probably numerously attended. (Hesychius, ad Soph. Track, v. 639.) It was convened on extraordinary occasions by the chairman of the council ('O tvs yvotfjias eVi^rjfn^W, Aesch. L c.).

Of the duties of this latter body nothing will give us a clearer view than the oaths taken and the decrees made by it. The oath was as follows (Aesch. De F. L. § 121) : " They would destroy no city of the Amphictyons, nor cut off their streams in war or peace ; and if any should do so, they would march against him and destroy his cities ; and should any pillage the property of the god, or be privy to or plan any thing against what was in his temple at Delphi, they would take vengeance on him with hand and foot, and voice, and all their might." There are two decrees given by Demosthenes, both commencing thus (Dem. de Cor. §197): — "When Cleinagoras was priest (tepeus), at the spring meeting, it was resolved by the pylagorae and the assessors of the Amphictyons, and the general body of them," &c. The resolution in the second case was, that as the Amphissians con­tinued to cultivate " the sacred district," Philip of Macedon should be requested to help Apollo and the Amphictyons, and that he was thereby constituted absolute general of the Amphictyons. He ac­cepted the office, and soon reduced the offending city to subjection. From the oath and the decrees, we see that the main duty of the deputies was the preservation of the rights and dignity of the temple at Delphi. We know, too, that after it was b.urnt down (b. c. 548), they contracted with the Alcmae-onidae for the rebuilding (Herod, ii. 180,v. 62); and Athenaeus (b. c. 160) informs us (iv. p. 173, b) that in other matters connected with the worship of the Delphian god they condescended to the regula­tion of the minutest trifles. History, moreover, teaches that if the council produced c^ny palpable effects, it was from their interest in Delphi ; and though it kept up a standing record of what ought to have been the international law of Greece, it sometimes acquiesced in, and at other times was a party to, the most iniquitous and cruel acts. Of this the case of Crissa is an instance. This town lay on the Gulf of Corinth, near Delphi, and was much frequented by pilgrims from the West. The Crissaeans were charged by the Delphians vvith undue exactions from these strangers, and with other crimes. The council declared war against them, as guilty of a wrong against the god. The war lasted ten years, till, at the suggestion of Solon, the waters of the Pleistus were turned off, then poisoned, and turned again into the city. The besieged drank their fill, and Crissa was soon razed to the ground ; and thus, if it were an Am­phictyonic city, was a solemn oath doubly violated. Its territory—the rich Crissaean or Cirrhaean plain — was consecrated to the god, and curses impre­cated upon any one who should till or dwell in it. Thus ended the First Sacred War (b. c. 586), in which the Athenians and Amphictyons were the in­struments of Delphian vengeance. (Pans. x. 37. § 4 ;



Clinton, F. //.vol. ii.p. 196 ; Aeschin.c. Cles.§ 109.) The Second, or Phocian War (b. c. 356), was the most important in which the Amphictyons were concerned (Thirlwall, Hist, of Greece^ vol. v. p. 263 —372) ; and in this the Thebans availed them­selves of the sanction of the council to take ven­geance on their enemies, the Phocians. To do this, however, it was necessary to call in Philip of Macedon, who readily proclaimed himself the champion of Apollo, as it opened a pathway to his own ambition. The Phocians were subdued (b. c. 346), and the council decreed that all their cities, except Abae, should be rased, and the inhabitants dispersed in villages not containing more than fifty inhabitants. Their two votes were given to Philip, who thereby gained a pretext for interfering with the affairs of Greece ; and also obtained the recog­nition of his subjects as Hellenes. To the causes of the Third Sacred War allusion has been made in the decrees quoted by Demosthenes. The Am­phissians tilled the devoted Cirrhaean plain, and behaved, as Strabo (ix. p. 419) says, worse than the Crissaeans of old (%etpoi»s %0'CLV irepl robs £eVovs). Their submission to Philip was immediately fol­lowed by the battle of Chaeroneia (b. c. 338), and the extinction of the independence of Greece. Tti the following year, a congress of the Amphictyonic states was held ; in which war was declared as if by united Greece against Persia, and Philip elected commander-in-chief. On this occasion the Am­phictyons assumed the character of national repre­sentatives as of old, when they set a price upon the head of Ephialtes, for his treason to Greece at Thermopylae, and erected monuments In honour of the Greeks who fell there. Herodotus indeed (vii. 214, 228), speaking of them in reference to Ephialtes, calls them ol r&v 'EAA^j/wz> Tlv\ay6poi.

We have sufficiently shown that the Amphic­tyons themselves did not observe the oaths they took ; and that they did not much, alleviate the horrors of war, or enforce what they had sworn to do, is proved by many instances. Thus, for in­stance, Mycenae was destroyed by Argos ( b. c. 468), Thespiae and Plataeae by Thebes, and Thebes her­self swept from the face of the earth by Alexander (e/c jjie<r7)S T^s'EAAciSos avrjpTrdffOrj, Aeschin. c. Ctes. §133). Indeed, we may infer from Thucydides (i. 112), that a few years before the Peloponnesian war, the coimcil was a passive spectator of what he calls"6 tepbs TroAe^os, when the Lacedaemonians made an expedition to Delphi, and put the temple into the hands of the Delphians,. the Athenians, after their departure, restoring it to the Phocians ; and yet the council is not mentioned as interfering. Itwill not be profitable to pursue its history further ; it need only be remarked, that Augustus wished his new city, Nicopolis (a. d. 31), to be enrolled among its members ; and that Pausanias, in the second century of our era, mentions it as still ex­isting, but deprived of all power and influence. In fact, even Demosthenes (DePace^ p. 63), spoke of it as the shadow at Delphi (tj ev AeA$o?s <r/aa). In the time of Pausanias, the number of Amphic­tyonic deputies was thirty.

There are two points of some interest, which still remain to be considered ; and first, the ety­mology of the word Amphictyon. We are told (Harpocrat. s. v.} that Theopompus thought it de­rived from the name of Amphictyon, a prince of < Thessaly, and the supposed author of the institution. Others, as Anaxinienes of Lampsacus, connected it

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