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On this page: Amma – Amnestia – Amphiaraia – Amphictyokes

AMPHICTYONES.

: and induere by tvftvvziv. Hence came

and eVj£oAatoj', , an outer garment, and a, an inner garment, a tunic, a shirt. [J. Y.]

AMMA (dfytyia), a Greek measure of length, equal to forty Tr^xeis (cubits), or sixty ir68es (feet). It was used in measuring land. (Hero, De Men- suris.} [P.S.]

AMNESTIA (afjivno-rla), is a word used by the later Greek writers, and from them borrowed by the Romans, to describe the act or arrangement by which offences were forgotten, or regarded as if they had not been committed, so that the of­fender could not be called to account for them. The word is chiefly used with reference to the offences committed, or alleged to have been com­mitted, against the laws, during those conflicts of opposing factions which so often occurred in the Greek republics, and in which the victorious party usually took a sanguinary vengeance upon its opponents. So rare, indeed, were the ex­ceptions to this course of vengeance, that there is only one case of amnesty in Greek history, which requires any particular notice. This was the am­nesty which terminated the struggle between the democratical and oligarchical parties at Athens, and completed the revolution by which the power of the Thirty Tyrants was overthrown, b. c. 403. It was arranged by the mediation of the Spartan king Pausanias, and extended to all the citizens who had committed illegal acts during the recent troubles, with the exception of the Thirty and the Eleven, and the Ten who had ruled in Pei-raeus ; and even they were only to be excepted in case of their refusal to give an account of their government; their children were included in the amnesty, and were permitted to reside at Athens. An addition was made to the oath of the senators, binding them not to receive any endeixis or apagoge on account of anything done before the amnesty, the strict observance of which was also imposed by an oath upon the dicastae. (Xen. Hellen. ii. 4. §§ 38—43 ; Andoc. de MysL p. 44 ; Dem. in Boeot. p. 1018 ; Nepos, TlirasybuL 3, who makes a confusion between the Ten Tyrants of Peiraeus and the Ten who succeeded the Thirty in the city ; Taylor, Lysiae Vita; Wachsmuth, Hellen. Alterth. vol. i. pp. 646, 647, new edition ; Hermann, Polit. Antiq. of Greece, § 169.)

The form of the word is incorrectly given in some modern works as a/x^orreia. But even the genuine form only belongs to later Greek ; being used only by Plutarch (Cic. 42, Anton. 14), Hero- dian (iii. 4. § 17, v. 4. § 18, viii. 12. § 6), Philo, and still later writers. The better writers used &8eta, and the verbal form is ov jiw^criKa/ceTj/. Re • specting the supposed allusion to the word by Cicero, see Facciolati, s. v. [P. S.]

AMPHIARAIA (a^iapcfra), games celebrated in honour of the ancient hero Amphiaraus, in the neighbourhood of Oropus, where he had a temple with a celebrated oracle. (Schol. ad Pind. OL vii. 154 ; the rites observed in his temple are de­ scribed by Pausanias (i. 34. § 3. ; K. F. Hermann, Lehrb. d. gottesdienstl. Alterth. d. Griecfien, § 63. n. 1.) [L.S.]

AMPHICTYOKES ('A^i/rnWes),members of an. Amphictyonia ( 'AfKpiKTvojsiaor'AfjityiKTiojsLa). Institutions called Amphictyonic appear to have existed in Greece from time immemorial. Of their nature and object history gives us only a general

AMPHICTYONES. 79

idea ; but we may safely believe them to have been associations of originally neighbouring tribes, formed for the regulation of mutual intercourse, and the protection of a common temple or sanctuary, at which the representatives of the different members met, to transact business and celebrate religious rites and games. This identity of religion, coupled with near neighbourhood, and that too in ages of remote antiquity, implies in all probability a cer­tain degree of affinity, which might of itself pro­duce unions and confederacies amongst tribes so situated, regarding each other as members of the same great family. They would thus preserve among themselves, and transmit to their children, a spirit of nationality and brotherhood ; nor could any better means be devised than the bond of a common religious worship, to counteract the hostile interests which, sooner or later, spring up in all large societies. The causes and motives from which we might expect such institutions to arise, existed in every neighbourhood ; and accordingly we find many Amphictyoniae of various degrees of import­ance, though our information respecting them is very deficient.

Thus we learn from Strabo, that there was one of some celebrity whose place of meeting was a sanc­tuary of Poseidon (Muller, Dorians, ii. 10. § 5 ; Strab. viii. p. 374) at Calauria, an ancient settle­ment of the lonians in the Saronic Gulf. The original members were Epidaurus, Hermione, Nauplia, Prasiae in Laconia, Aeg-ina, Athens, and the Boeo­tian Orchomenus (Thirlwall, Hist, of 'Greece, vol. i. p. 375); whose remoteness from each other makes it difficult to conceive what could have been the mo­tives for forming the confederation, more especially as religious causes seem precluded by the fact, that Troezen, though so near to Calauria, and though Poseidon was its tutelary god, was not a member. In after times, Argos and Sparta took the place of Nauplia and Prasiae, and religious ceremonies were the sole object of the meetings of the association. There also seems to have been another in Argolis (Strab. I. c. ; Pausan. iv. 5) distinct from that of Calauria, the place of congress being the 'Hpewoj', or temple of Hera. Delos, too, was the centre of an Amphictyony — the religious metropolis, or 'ictti'tj j/7](rcav of the neighbouring Cyclades, where deputies and embassies (frecopot) met to celebrate religious solemnities, in honour of the Dorian Apollo, and apparently without any reference to political objects. (Muliefi, iik 3. § 7 ; Callim. Hymn. 325.)

The system indeed was by no means confined to the mother country ; for the federal unions of the Dorians, lonians, and Aeolians, living on the west coast of Asia Minor, seem to have been Amphic-tyonic in spirit, although modified by exigencies of situation. Their main essence consisted in keep­ing periodical festivals in honour of the acknow­ledged gods of their respective nations. Thus the Dorians held a federal festival, and celebrated re­ligious games at Triopium, uniting with the worship of their national god Apollo that of the more an­cient and Pelasgic Demeter. The lonians met for similar purposes in honour of the Heliconian Po­seidon * at Mycale,—their place of assembly being called the Panionium, and their festival Panionia. The twelve towns of the Aeolians assembled at Grynea, in honour of Apollo. (Herod, i. 144, 148,

* Poseidon was the god of the lonians, as Apollo of the Dorians. Muller, Dor. ii. 10. §. 5.

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