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formed a distinct estate at Rome, and when the whole body of the citizens had become very greatly increased, we frequently read, in the Roman writers, of the great efforts which it was necessary for candidates to make, in order to secure the votes of the citizens. At Rome, as in every com­munity into which the element of popular election enters, solicitation of votes, and open or secret influence and bribery, were among the means by which a candidate secured his election to the offices of state. The elections recurred annually, and candidates had plenty of practice in the various modes of corruption.

Whatever may be the authority of the piece intitled " Q. Ciceronis de Petitione Consnlatus ad M. Tullium Fratrem," it seems to present a pretty fair picture of those arts and means, by which a candidate might lawfully endeavour to secure the votes of the electors, and also some intimation of those means which were not lawful, and which it was the object of various enactments to repress.

A candidate was calledpetitor; and his opponent with reference to him, competitor. A candidate (candidatus) was so called from his appearing in the public places, such as the fora and Campus Mar­tins, before his fellow-citizens, in a whitened toga. On such occasions, the candidate was attended by his friends (deductores), or followed by the poorer citizens (sectatores), who could in no other manner show their good will or give their assistance. (Cic. pro Murena, c. 34.) The word assiduitas ex­pressed both the continual presence of the candi­date at Rome, and his continual solicitations. The candidate, in going his rounds or taking his walk, was accompanied by a nomenclator^ who gave him the names of such persons as he might meet; the candidate was thus enabled to address them by their name, an indirect compliment which could not fail to be generally gratifying to the electors. The candidate accompanied his address with a shake of the hand (prensatio). The term benigni-tas comprehended generally any kind of treating, as shows, feasts, &c. Candidates sometimes left Rome, and visited the coloniae and municipia, in which the citizens had the suffrage ; thus Cicero proposed to visit the Cisalpine towns, when he was a candidate for the consulship. (Cic. ad Alt. i. 1*)

That ambitus, which was the object of several penal enactments, taken as a generic term, compre­hended the two species,—ambitus and largitiones (bribery). Liberalitas and benignitas are opposed by Cicero, as things allowable, to ambitus and largitio, as things illegal. (Cic. de Orat. ii. 25 ; and compare pro Murena, c. 36.) The word for ambitus in the Greek writers is 8€Ka(r/j,6s. Money was paid for votes ; and in order to insure secrecy and secure the elector, persons called interpretes were employed to make the bargain, sequestres to hold the money till it was to be paid (Cic. pro Cluent. 26), and divisores to distribute it. (Cic. ad Att. i. 16.) The offence of ambitus was a matter which belonged to the judicia publica, and the enactments against it were numerous. The earliest enactment that is mentioned simply for­bade persons " to add white to their dress,'* with a view to an election. (b.c. 432 ; Liv. iv. 25.) This seems to mean using some white sign or token on the dress, to signify that a man was a candidate. The object of the law was to check ambitio, the name for going about to canvass^ in place of which ambitus was subsequently employed.



Still the practice of using a white dress on occasion of canvassing was usual, and. appears to have given origin to the application of the term candidatus to one who was a petitor. (Cretata ambitio, Persius, Sat. v. 177 ; Polyb. x. 4. ed. Bekker.) A Lex Poetelia (b.c. 358 ; Liv. vii. 15) forbade candi­dates canvassing on market days, and going about to the places in the country where people were collected. The law was passed mainly to check the pretensons of novi homines, of whom the nobiles were jealous. By the Lex Cornelia Baebia (b.c. 181) those who were convicted of ambitus were incapacitated from being candidates for ten years. (Liv. xl. 19 ; Scliol. Bob. p. 361.) The Lex Acilia Calpurnia (b.c. 67) was intended to suppress treating of the electors and other like matters: the penalties were fine, exclusion from the senate, and perpetual incapacity to hold office. (Dion Cass. xxxvi. 21.) The Lex Tullia was passed in the consulship of Cicero (b. c. 63) for the purpose of adding to the penalties of the Acilia Calpurnia. (Dion Cass. xxxvii. 29; Cic. pro Murena, c. 23.) The penalty under this lex was ten years' exile. This law forbade any person to exhibit public shows for two years before he was a candidate. It also forbade candidates hiring persons to attend them and be about their persons. In the second consulship of M. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Pompeins Magnus (b. c. 55) the Lex Licinia was passed. This lex, which is entitled De Sodalitiis, did not alter the previous laws against bribery; but it was specially directed against a particular mode of canvassing, which consisted in employing agents (sodales) to mark out the members of the several tribes into smaller portions, and to secure more effectually the votes by this division of labour. This distribution of the members of the tribes was called decuriatio. (Cic. pro PlanciO) c. 18.) It was an obvious mode of better securing the votes ; and in the main is rightly explained by Rein, but completely mis­understood by Wunder and others. Drumann (GescJdctite Roms, vol. iv. p. 93) confounds the de­curiatio with the coitio or coalition of candidates to procure votes. The mode of appointing the judices in trials under the Lex Licinia was also provided by that lex. They were called Judices Editicii, because the accuser or prosecutor nominated four tribes, and the accused was at liberty to reject one of them. The judices were taken out of the other three tribes ; but the mode in which they were taken is not quite clear. The penalty under the Lex Licinia was exile, btit for what period is uncertain. The Lex Pompeia (b. c. 52), passed when Pompeius was sole consul for part of that year, appears to have been rather a measure passed for the occasion of the trials then had and con­templated than any thing else. It provided for the mode of naming the judices, and shortened the proceedings. When C. Julius Caesar obtained the supreme power in Rome, he used to recommend some of the candidates to the people, who, of course, followed his recommendation. As to the consulship, he managed the appointments to that office just as he pleased. (Suet. Caes. c. 41.) The Lex Julia de Ambitu was passed (b.c. 18) in the time of Augustus, and it excluded from office for five years (Dion Cass. liv. 16 ; Siiet. Oct. 34) those who were convicted of bribery. But as the penalty was milder than those under the former laws, we must conclude that they were repealed

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