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On this page: Alluvio – Aloa – Alogiou Graphe – Aluta – Alytae – Amanuensis – Ambarvalia – Ambitus



African sand, several jars full of which were found in the baths of Titus, and one of these is now in the British Museum. This preparatory anointing was called ^ TrapaffKevao'TiK^ rpfyis. The athleta was again anointed after the contest, in order to restore the tone of the skin and muscles , this anointing was called y airoOepaireid. He then bathed, and had the dust, sweat, and oil scraped off his body, by means of an instrument similar to the strigil of the Romans, and called ffrXeyyis, and afterwards ^vcrrpa. The aliptae took advantage of the knowledge they necessarily acquired of the state of the muscles of the athletae, and their gene­ral strength or weakness of body, to advise them as to their exercises and mode of life. They were thus a kind of medical trainers. laTpaXeiirrai. (Plut. de Tuend. San. 16. p. 430 ; Celsus, i. 1; Plin. H. N. xxix. 1, 2.) Sometimes they even superintended their exercises, as in the case of Milesias. (Pindar, O^m.viii, 54—71 jandBockh's note.) [athletae.] The part of the palaestra in which the athletae were anointed was called

Among the Romans, the aliptae were slaves who scrubbed and anointed their masters in the baths. They,- too, like the Greek dAeiTrrat, appear to have attended to their masters' constitution and mode of life. (Cic. ad Fam. i. 9, 35 ; Senec. Ep. 56 ; Juvenal, Sat. iii. 76, vi. 422 ; Pignor. de Serv. p. 81.) They were also called unctores. They used in their operations a kind of scraper called a strigil, towels (lintea), a cruise of oil (guttus), which was usually of horn, a bottle [ampulla], and a small vessel called lenticula. [BATHS.]

The apartment in the Greek palaestra where the anointing was performed was called aXeiir- TJlpiov, that in the Roman baths was called unctuarium. [P. S.]

ALLUVIO. " That," says Gains (ii. 70, &c.), " appears to be added to our land by alluvio, which a river adds to our land (ager) so gradually that we cannot estimate how much is added in each moment of time ; or, as it is commonly ex­pressed, it is that which is added so gradually as to escape observation. But if a river (at once) takes away a part of your land, and brings it to mine, this part still remains your property." There is the same definition by Gains in his Res Coti-dianae (Dig. 41. tit. 1. s. 7), with this addition: — " If the part thus suddenly taken away should adhere for a considerable time to my land, and the trees on such part should drive their roots into my land, from that time such part appears to belong to my land." The acquisitio per alluvionem was con­sidered by the Roman jurists to be by the jus gentium, in the Roman sense of that term ; and it was comprehended under the general head of Accessio. A man might protect his land against loss from the action of a river by securing the banks of his land (Dig. 43. tit. 15; De Ripa Munienda), provided he did not injure the navi­gation.

If an island was formed in the middle of a river, it was the common property of those who possessed lands on each bank of the river ; if it was not in the middle, it belonged to those who possessed lands on that bank of the river to which it was nearest. (Gaius, ii. 72.) This is explained more minutely in the Digest (41. tit. 1. s. 7). A river means a public river (Jiumen publicum).

According to a constitution of the Emperor


Antoninus Pius, there was no jus alluvionis in the case of agri limitati, for a certain quantity (certus cuique modus) was assigned by the form of the centuriae. (Dig. 41. tit. 1. s. 16; comp. Aggenus Urbicus, in Frontin. Comment. De Attuvione, pars prior, ed. Goes ; and ager.) Circumluvio differs from alluvio in this, that the whole of the land in question is surrounded by water, and subject to its action. Cicero (De Orat. i. 38) enumerates the jura alluviomtm and circumluvionum as matters in­cluded under the head of causae centumvirales.

The doctrine of alluvio, as stated by Bracton in the chapter De acquirendo Rerum Dominio (fol. 9), is taken from the Digest (41. tit. 1. s. 7), and is in several passages a copy of the words of Gains, as cited in the Digest. [G. L.]

ALOA or HALO A ('AAxSa, 'AAcDa), an Attic festival, but celebrated principally at Eleusis, in honour of Demeter and Dionysus, the inventors of the plough and protectors of the fruits of the earth. It took place every year after the harvest was over, and only fruits were offered on this occasion, partly as a grateful acknowledgment for the benefits the husbandman had received, and partly that the next harvest might be plentiful. We learn from De­mosthenes (c. Neaer. p. 1385), that it was unlawful to offer any bloody sacrifice on the day of this fes­tival, and that the priests alone had the privilege to offer the fruits. The festival was also called (5-aAucrja (Hesych. s. v.), or crwyKOfjLia'T'fipia. [L. S.]

ALOGIOU GRAPHE (a\ojiov ypaQfy an action which might be brought before the logistae (\oyicrrai) at Athens, against all persons who neglected to pass their accounts, when their term of office expired. (Suid. Hesych. Etymol. s. v. ; Pollux, viii. 54 ; Meier, Att. Process, ip. 363.)


ALUTA. [calceus.].

ALYTAE (aA>rai). [olympia.]

AMANUENSIS, or AD MANUM SEftVUS, a slave, or freedman, whose office it was to write letters and other things under his master's direc­ tion. The amanuensis must not be confounded with another sort of slaves, also called ad manum servi) who were always kept ready to be employed in any business. (Suet. Caes. 74, Aug. 67, Ner. 44, Tit. 3, Vesp. 3 ; Cic. De Orat. iii. 60, 225 ; Pignor. De Servis, 109.) [P. S.]

^AMARY'NTHIA, or AMARY'SIA ('A^a-pvvdia, or 'A^apytfia), a festival of Artemis Amarynthia, or Amarysia, celebrated, as it seems, originally at Amarynthus in Euboea, with extra­ordinary splendour ; but it was also solemnized in several places in Attica, such as Athmone (Paus. i. 31. § 3) ; and the Athenians held a fes­tival, as Pausanias says, in honour of the same goddess, in no way less brilliant than that in Euboea. (Hesych. s. v. 'A/mpucria.) The festival in Euboea was distinguished for its splendid pro­cessions ; and Strabo himself (x. p. 448) seems to: have seen, in the temple of Artemis Amarynthia, a column on which was recorded the splendour with which the Eretrians at one time celebrated this festival. The inscription stated, that the pro­cession was formed of three thousand heavy-armed men, six hundred horsemen, and sixty chariots. (Comp. Schol. ad Find. Ol. xiii. 159.) [L. S.]

AMBARVALIA. [arvales fratres.]

AMBITUS, which literally signifies " a going ' about," cannot, perhaps, be more nearly expressed than by our word canvassing. After the plebs had

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