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recorded that an individual named Fulvius Hir-pinus constructed, near Tarquinii, the first coch-learium ever formed in Italy, a short time before the civil war between Caesar and Pompey. (Varr. iii. 14 ; Plin. H. N. ix. 56, xxx. 79 15 ; comp. Sallust. Jug. 93.)

Dormice (glires) were regarded as articles of such luxury that their use as food was forbidden in the sumptuary laws of the more rigid censors ; but, notwithstanding, a glirarium became a com­mon appendage to a villa. It was a small space of ground surrounded with a smooth wall of polished or stuccoed stone, planted with acorn-bearing trees to yield food, and containing holes (cam) for rear­ing the young. They were fattened up in earthen jars (dolia) of a peculiar construction, upon chest­nuts, walnuts, and acorns. (Varr. iii. 15 ; Plin. H. N. ix. 57 ; comp. Martial, iii. 58, xiii. 59 ; Petron. 3 L; Amm. Marc, xxviii. 4.)

II. b. Piscinae.

Lastly, we may say a few words upon artificial fish ponds, which were of two kinds—freshwater ponds (piscinae dulces)^ and salt water ponds (piscinae salsae s. marUimae).

The former, from an early period, had frequently been attached to ordinary farms, and proved a source of gain ; the latter were unknown until the last half century of the republic, were mere ob­jects of luxury, and were confined for the most part to the richest members of the community, to many of whom, such as Hirrus, Philippus, Lucullus, and Hortenfeius, who are sneeringly termed piscinarii by Cicero, they became objects of intense interest. These receptacles were constructed at a vast cost on the sea-coast, a succession being frequently formed for different kinds of fish, and the most ingenious and elaborate contrivances provided for the admission of the tide at particular periods, and for regulating the temperature of the water ; large gums were paid for the stock with which they were filled, consisting chiefly of mullets and mu-raenae ; and a heavy expense was incurred in maintaining them, for fishermen were regularly employed to catch small fry for their food, and when the weather did not permit such supplies to be procured, salt anchovies and the like were purchased in the market. For the most part they yielded no return whatever, during the lifetime at least of the proprietors, for the inmates were re­garded as pets, and frequently became so tame as to answer to the voice and eat from the hand. When sales did take place the prices were very high. Thus Hirrus, who, on one occasion, lent Caesar 6,000 muraenae, at a subsequent period obtained 4,000,000 of sesterces (upwards of 30,000/.) for an ordinary villa, chiefly in conse­quence of the ponds and the quantity of fish they contained.

A certain Sergius Grata, a short time before the Marsic War, formed artificial oyster-beds (vivaria ostrearum) from which he obtained a large revenue. He first asserted and established the superiority of the shell-fish from the Lucrine Lake, which have always maintained their celebrity, although under the empire less esteemed than those from Britain. (Varr. R. R. iii. 17 ; Colum. viii. 16, 17 ; Plin. H. N. ix. 54, 55 ; Cic. ad Att. i. 19.)

Of modern treatises connected with the subject of this article the most important is Dickson's " Husbandry of the Ancients," 2 vols. 8vo. 1788,


the work of a Scotch clergyman, who was well acquainted with the practical details of agriculture and who had studied the Latin writers with great care, but whose scholarship was unfortunately so imperfect that he was in many instances unable to interpret correctly their expressions. Many use­ful and acute observations will be found in the " Economie Politique des Remains " by Dureau de la Malle, 2 tomes, 8vo. Paris, 1840, but he also is far from being accurate, and he is embarrassed throughout by very erroneous views with regard to the rate of interest among the Romans, and by the singular misconception that from the expulsion of the kings until the end of the second Punic war, the law forbade any Roman citizen to possess more than 7 jugers of land. (Vol. ii. p. 2.) Those who desire to compare the agriculture of modern Italy with ancient usages will do well to consult Arthur Young's " Travels in Italy," and the Appendix of Symonds ; the " Agriculture Toscane " of J. C. L. Simonde, 8vo. Geneve, 1801; and " Lettres ecrites d'ltalie a Charles Pictet par M. Lullin de Cha-teauvieux." 8vo. Paris. 2nd ed. 1820. [W. R,]

AGRIMENSORES. At the foundation of a colony and the assignation of lands the auspicia were taken, for which purpose the presence of the augur was necessary. But the business of the augur did not extend beyond the religious part of the ceremony: the division and measurement of the land were made by professional measurers. These were the Finitores mentioned in the early writers (Cic. c. Rullum9 ii. 13 ; Plautus, Poenulus, Prolog. 49), who in the later periods were called Mensores and Agrimensores. The business of a Finitor could only be done by a free man, and the honourable nature of his office is indicated by the rule that there was no bargain for his services, but he received his pay in the form of a gift. These Finitores appear also to have acted as judices, under the name of arbitri, in those disputes about boundaries which were purely of a technical, not a legal, character.

Under the empire the observance of the auspices in the fixing of camps and the establishment of military colonies was less regarded, and the prac­tice of the Agrimensores was reduced to a system by Julius Frbntinus, Hyginus, Siculus Flaccus, and other Gromatic. writers, as they are sometimes termed. As to the meaning .of the term Groma, and the derived words, see Facciolati, Lexicon, and the Index to Goesius, Rei Agrariae Scriptores. The teachers of geometry in the large cities of the empire used to give practical instruction on the system of gromatice. This, practical geometry was one of the liberalia studia (Dig. 50.. tit. 13. s. 1) ; but the professors of geometry and the teachers of law were not exempted from the obligation of being tutores, and from other such burdens (Frag. Vat. § 150), a fact which shows the subordinate rank which the teachers of elementary science then held*

The Agrimensor could mark out the limits of the centuriae, and restore the boundaries where they were confused, but he could not assign (assignare) without a commission from the emperor. ^ Military persons of various classes are also sometimes men-? tioned as practising surveying, and settling disputes about boundaries. The lower rank of the profes­sional Agrimensor, as contrasted with the Finitor of earlier periods, is shown .by the fact that in the imperial period thare might be a contract with an Agrimensor for paying him for his services.

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