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AGORA.

in their commodities into the city, and the retail dealers (Kct.irr)\oi) who exposed the goods pur­chased of the former, or of producers of any kind (auTOTrwAcu), or of foreign merchants (e/xTropoi), for sale in the markets. (Plat, de Repub. ii. p. 371 ; Xen. Mem. iii. 7. § 6; Pint. Arat. 8 ; caupo.) A certain degree of disgrace was attached to the occupation of a retail dealer, though at Athens there were positive enactments to the contrary. (Andoc. de Myst. p. 68 ; Aristot. de Repub. i. 10, iii. 5 ; Plat. Leg. xi. pp. 918, 919 ; Diog. Laert. i. 104,ix. 66 ; Aristoph. Eq. 181 ; Demosth. c. Euhul. 30, p. 1303.) There is an interesting but very difficult question as to the effect which the occu­pation of selling in the market had upon the social position of women who engaged in it. (Demosth. in Neaer. p. 1367 ; Lys. in Theomn. p. 363 ; Plut. Sol. 23 ; Harpocr. and Suid. s.v. ncoA<£<n ; Becker, Charikles, vol. i. pp. 260—266.) The wholesale dealers also sold their goods by means of a sample (5e?y/m), either in the market, or in the place called Scry/m, attached to the port. (Harpocr. s. v. §e?y/.ia ; Poll. ix. 34 ; Pint, Demosth. 23 ; Plat, j&egr. vii. p.788 ; Diphil. ap. Ath. xi. p. 499, e.; Bockh, Econ. of Atli. p. 58, 2d ed.) The retail dealers either exposed their goods for sale in their shops, or hawked them about. (Aristoph. Acharn. 33; Plut. Apoplith. Lacon. 62, p. 236.) The pri­vilege of freely selling in the market belonged to the citizens : foreigners had to pay a toll. (De­mosth. in Eulul p. 1308 ; Bockh, Econ. of Atli. p. 313.)

Most citizens either made their own purchases in the market (Aeschin. c. Timarch. p. 87 ; Aristoph. Lysistr. 555—559), or employed a slave, who was called, from his office, ajopaffr^s (Xen. Mem. i. 5. § 2 ; comp. Ath. iv. p. 171 ; Poll. iii. 126 ; Terent. Andr. ii. 2. 31.) Sometimes female slaves performed this office (Lysias, de Caed. Eratosth. p. 18, comp. p. 11), but such an appear­ance in public was not permitted to any free wo­man, except a courtezan (Machon, ap. Ath. xiii. p. 580.) The philosopher Lynceus, of Samos, wrote a book for the guidance of purchasers in the market. (Ath. vi. p. 228.) It was esteemed dis­reputable for people to carry home their purchases from the markets, and there were therefore porters in attendance for that purpose, who were called irpovveiKoi, iraio'api&ves, and TrcuSwz/es. (Theo-phrast.Char, xvii.—xxii.; Hesych. s.v. TrpovveiKoi.) The preservation of order in the market was the office of the agoranomi.

Both the architectural details of the Agora and the uses of its several parts might be further illus­trated by the remains of the ayopd or ayopai (for it is even doubtful whether there were two or only one) at Athens ; but this would lead us too far into topographical details. This part of the subject is fully discussed in the following works: Leake, Topography of A thens ; Krause, Hellas, vol. ii. ; Miiller, in Ersch and Gruber's Encydopadie, art. Attica; Hirt, Lekre d. Geb'dtide, ch. v. supp. 1 ; Wachsmuth, Plelleh. Alterthumsk. vol. i. supp. 6, b, 2d ed.

For the whole subject the chief modern au­thorities are the following : — Hirt, Lelire d. Ge-b'dude d. Griechen und Romern, ch. v. ; Stieglitz, Arclidol. d. Baulcunst; Wachsmuth, Hellenische Alterthumskunde; Bockh, Public Oeconomy of Athens; and especially Becker, Charikles, 4th scene, vol. i. pp. 236—296, in the original. [P.S.]

AGRAPHIOU GRAPH E.

AGORANOMI (ayopcmfytot) were public functionaries in most of the Grecian states, whose duties corresponded in many respects to those of the Roman aediles ; whence Greek writers on Roman affairs call the aediles by this name. Under the Roman empire, the agoranomi were called Xoyicrrai (Schol. ad Aristoph. Acharn. 688): they enjoyed in later times great honour and respect, and their office seems to have been regarded as one of the most honourable in the Greek states. We frequently read in inscriptions of their being rewarded with crowns, of which many instances are given by Miiller. (Aeginetica, p. 138) They were called by the Romans curatores reipublicae. (Cod. 1. tit. 54. s. 3.)

Agoranomi existed both at Sparta and Athens. Our knowledge of the Spartan agoranomi is very limited, and derived almost entirely from inscrip­tions. They stepped into the place of the ancient Empelori ( eyitTreAwpoi) in the time of the Romans. They formed a collegium (ffvvapx'ia) with one at their head, called TrpecrSvs (Bockh, Corp. Inscr. vol. i. p. 610 ; and Sauppe in Rlieinisclies Museum, vol. iv. p. 159, New Series.) The Athenian ago­ranomi were regular magistrates during the flourish­ing times of the republic. They were ten in number, five for the city and five for the Peiraeeus, and were chosen by lot, one from each tribe. (Dem. c. Timocr. p. 735 ; Aristoph. Acharn. 689.) The reading in Harpocration (s. v. ayopcmfytot), which mentions twenty agoranomi, fifteen for the' city, and five for the Peiraeeus, is false. (Bockh, Corp. Inscr. vol. i. p. 337.)

The principal duty of the agoranomi was, as their name imports, to inspect the market, and to see that all the laws respecting its regulation were properly observed. They had the inspection of all things which were sold in the market, with the exception of corn, which was subject to the juris­diction of the fflTO(pV\aK€$. [SlTOPHYLACES.J

The agoranomi had in fact chiefly to attend to retail-trade (/can^Aem): wholesale-trade was not much carried on in the market-place, and was under the jurisdiction of the eTn/xeA^ral rov 'E/t-iropiov. They regulated the price and quantity of all things which were brought into the market, and punished all persons convicted of cheating, especially by false weights and measures. They had in general the power of punishing all infraction of the laws and regulations relating to the market, by inflicting a fine upon the citizens, and personal chastisement upon foreigners and slaves, for which purpose they usually carried a whip. They had the care of all the temples and fountains in the market-place, and received the tax (^zvutbv reAos) which foreigners and aliens were obliged to pay for the privilege of exposing their goods for sale in the market. (Schol. ad Aristoph. Acharn. 689 ; Plat. Leg. vi. p. 763, viii. p. 849, xi. pp. 917, 918 ; Liban. Declam. 46 ; ayopas reAos, Aristoph. Acharn. 861, and Schol.; Phot. s. v. Kara rfy ayopcu'.) The public prostitutes were also subject to their regulations, as was the case at Corinth (Justin. xxi. 5.), and they fixed the price which each prostitute was to take. (Suid. and Zonar. s. v. Siaypa/^ua.) The duties of the agoranomi resembled those of the astynomi. [astynomi.] (Meier, Ait. Process, pr\ 89—92; Bockh, Pull Econ. of Athens, pp. 48, 333, 2nd ed.)

AGRAPHIOU GRAPHE (bypaQiov ypcujyfi), The names of all persons at Athens who owed any

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