The Ancient Library

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rourse furnished with colonnades, which the climate rendered necessary, and partly with shops and stalls, partly with temporary booths of wicker-work (oTcrji'ai, Harpocr. s. v. ffirqv'iTris ; Demosth. de Cor. p. 284). Each of these parts was called a kvk\os. It is generally stated that this term was applied only to that division of the market where meat, fish, and such things were sold ; but Becker has shown that it was used also for other parts of the market (Charikles, vol. i. pp. 268, 269). The several divisions of the market were named ac­cording to the articles exposed for sale in them. (Poll. ix. 47, x. 19.) Of these divisions, the fol­lowing were the most important.

The part in which fish and other delicacies for the table were exposed to sale was called ''x^s, &J/oi<, or txfltxforwAis1 ayopd, and was the chief centre of business. It was open only for a limited time, the signal for commencing business being given "by the sound of a bell, which was obeyed with an eagerness that is more than once plea­santly referred to by the ancient writers. (Plu­tarch, Sympos. iv. 4, 2 ; Strab. xiv. p. 658.) The coarseness and impositions of the fishsellers, and the attempts of purchasers to beat them down, are frequently alluded to by the comic poets. (Amphis, ap.Atli. vi. p. 224, e. ; Alexis, ibid.; Xenarch. ibid. p. 225, c.; Alexis, ibid. p. 226, a, b.; comp. Plat. Leg. xi. p. 917.) It is not quite clear whether meat, poultry, and so forth, were sold in the same place 'as the fish, or had a separate division of the market assigned to them. Bread was partly sold in the assigned place in the market, which was per­haps the same as the meal-market (to. &A(£tTa), and partly carried round for sale: the sellers were generally women, and were proverbially abusive. (Aristoph. Ran. 857, Vesp. 1389.) In another part of the market, called /JLvppivai, were the women who sold garlands of myrtle and flowers for festivals and parties. (Plut. Arat. 6 • Aristoph. Tliesm. 448, 457.) Near these, pro­bably, were the sellers of ribands and fillets for the head. (Demosth. in Eubul. p. 1308.) The wholesale traffic in wine, as distinct from the business of the Kaw^Xos [caupo], was carried on in the market, the wine being1 brought in from the country in carts, from which it was transferred to amphorae: the process is represented in two pictures at Pompeii. (Alexis, ap. Ath. x. p. 431, e.; Mus. Borbon. vol. iv. Relaz. d. Scav. A., and vol. v. p. 48.) [amphora.] The market for pottery was called x^TPal > an(i must not be confounded with the place where cooks sat and offered themselves for hire, with their cooking utensils: this latter place was called fjt,ayeip€ia. (Poll. ix. 48 ; Alexis, ap. Ath. iv. p. 164, f.) In short, every kind of ne­cessary or luxury was exposed for sale in its as­signed place. Thus, we find, besides those already .mentioned, the market for onions (toc Kpo^.va\ for garlick (to, (T«:<5poSa), for nuts (ra Kdpva), for apples (to. ^Aa), for fresh cheese (6 xAcopbs rupos), for oil (rovXaiov\ for perfumes and unguents (ra ./xupa), for frankincense (6 Aigcw/wT^s), for spices (to. ap&S/zara), for couches (at KX'ivai}^ for new and old clothes (ayopa fytaT/jTrwAis-, or (nreipoirtoXLs, Poll. vii. 78), for books (jSigAioflfar?), and for slaves (ra dj/5pct7ro5a, Poll. x. 19). Lastly, a part of the market was devoted to the money-changers (Tpa7re0Ta£). [] Mention is some­times made of the women's market, yvvauceia ayopd, a term which has given rise to much doubt.


(Theophr. Char. 2 ; Poll. x. 18.) The common explanation is, that it was the part of the market to which women resorted to purchase what they wanted for household uses. But it appears clearly that purchases were seldom made in the market by women, and never by free women. The only plausible explanation is, either that a distinct part of the market was assigned to those commodities* the sellers of which were women, such as the , Ae/a007rc£Ai5es, t(rx_a5o7rct;AiSes, crre-and others, or else that the term was applied to that part of the market where articles for the use of women were sold. But the matter is altogether doubtful. The above list of commodities, sold in the respective divisions of the market, might be still further extended. Indeed, with reference to the Athenian market, to which the description chiefly applies, there can be no doubt that every article of home produce or of foreign commerce from the known world was there exposed for sale. (See Thuc. ii. 18 ; Xen. Oecon. Ath. ii. 7 ; Isocr. Paney. 64 ; Ath. xiv. p. 640,

It is not to be supposed, however, that the sale of these various articles was confined to the market. Frequent mention is made of shops in other parts of the city (e. g. Thuc. viii. 95), and some articles, such as salt fish, seem to have been sold outside the gates. (Aristoph. Equit. 1246.)

The time during which the market was fre­quented was the forenoon ; but it is difficult to de­termine precisely how much of the forenoon is denoted by the common phrases TrXrjOovo'a o/yopa, irepl 7r\'f]9ovo'av wyopav, irhyOwpr) ayopas. (Herod. ii. 173, vii. 223.) Suidas (s. v.) explains Tr\rtdov(ra ayopd as &pa rpir^ but elsewhere (s. v. irepl irXyO. ay.) he says that it was either the fourth, or fifth, or sixth hour. We might infer that the whole period thus designated was from nine to twelve o'clock (equinoctial time) ; but Herodotus, in two passages (iii. 104, iv, 181) makes a distinction be­tween ir^Oovo-a ayopd and jueoTjyugpta. (Comp. Liban. Ep. 1084.) The time of the conclusion of the market was called ayopas bid\vcns (Herod, iii. 104, comp. Xenoph. Oecon. 12, 1 ; and for a fur­ther discussion respecting the time of the full mar­ket, see Duker, ad Thuc. viii. 92 ; Wesseling, ad Diod. Sic. xiii. 48 ; Perizon. ad Aelian. V. //. xii. 30 ; Gesner and Reiz, ad Lucian. Philops. 11, vol. iii. p. 38 ; (Bahr, ad Herod, ii. 173.) During these houTs ih'e 'market was a place not only of traffic but of general resort. Thus Socrates habitually frequented it'&s one of the places where he had the opportunity of - conversing with the greatest number of persons. (Xen..-Mem.. i. 1. § 10 ; Plat. Apol. p, 17.) It was also frequented in other parts of the day, especially in the evening, when many persons might be seen walking about or resting upon seats placed under the colonnades. (Demosth. in Con. p. 1258; Pseudo-Plut. Vit. X. Or. p. 849, d. ; Lucian. Jup. Trag. 16, vol. ii. p. 660.) Even the shops themselves, not only those of the barbers, the perfumers, and the doctors, but even those of the leather-sellers and the harness-makers, were com­mon places, of resort for conversation ; and it was even esteemed discreditable to avoid them alto­gether. (Aristoph. Plut. 337, Av. 1439 ; Xen. Mem. iv. 2. § 1 ; Lysias, in Panel, pp. 730, 732, de Inval. p. 754 ; Demosth. in Aristog. p. 786.)

The persons who carried on traffic in the market were the country people (o/yopaibt), who brought

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