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AGORA,

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PLAN OF A GREEK AGORA, ACCORDING TO VITRUVIUS.

A, the open court, surrounded by double colon­nades and shops: b, the Curia: c, the chief temple.

AGORA.

also used as a treasury : d, the Basilica, or court of justice : e, the Tholus, in connection with the other rooms of the Prytaneium, c, d.

The cut below, which is also from Hirt, re­presents a section of the Agora made along the dotted line on the plan.

We gain further information respecting the build­ings connected with the Agora, and the works of art with which it was adorned, chiefly from the statements of Pausanias respecting those of par­ticular cities, such as Athens (i. ,5. § 2), Thebes (ix. 17. § 1), Sicyon (ii. 7. § 7, 9. § 6), Argos (ii. 21), Sparta (iii. 11), Tegea (viii. 47. § 3), Mega­lopolis (viii. 30. § 2), to which passages the reader is referred for the details. The buildings men­tioned in connection with the Agora are : — 1. Temples of the gods and shrines of heroes [TEM-plum], besides altars and statues of divinities. The epithet ayopcuos is often applied to a divinity who was thus worshipped in the Agora (Pans. II. cc. ; Aesch. Eumen. 976 ; Soph. Oed. Tyr. 161, where mention is made of the circular throne of Artemis in the Agora), and Aeschylus ex­pressly refers to the 3-eol a70pas eVio-K&rot (Sept. c. Theb. 271, 272). 2. The Senate-house (/3ouAev-Trjpioj/), and other places for the meetings of the governing bodies, according to the constitution of the

SECTION OF THE SAME.

particular state : in the Agora at Sparta, for ex­ample, there were the senate-house of the Gerontes and the places of meeting of the Ephori, the No-mophylaces, and the Bidiaei. 3. The residence of the magistrates for the time being [prytaneium]. 4. Courts of justice [basilica]. 5. The public treasury [thesaurus]. 6. The prison [carcer]. 7- The police station, if such a term may be ap­plied to an ancient Agora. At Athens, for example, the station of the thousand Scythian bowmen, who formed the police force ofr the state, was in the middle of the Agora : this does not, however, seem to have been a permanent building, but only a number of tents. 8. Buildings used for the re­gulation of the standards of measure, and so forth ; such as the building vulgarly called the Temple of the Winds at Athens [horologium], and the Milliarium Aureum at Rome, which seems to have been imitated from a similar standard at Athens [ milliarium]. To these various buildings must be added the works of art, with which the open area and the porticoes of the Agora were adorned ; which were chiefly in celebration of gods and heroes who figured in the mythology, of men who had deserved well of the state, of victories and other memorable events, besides ?those which ob­tained a place there purely by their merits as master-pieces of art. As a specimen we may take the Agora at Athens, a portico of which, thence called the erroa Trot/ciA^, was adorned with the paintings of Polygnotus, Micon, and others,

and in which also stood the statues of the ten heroes (apx??76Tcu), after whom the Phylae oi Cleisthenes were named, of Sol on, of Harmodius, and Aristogeiton, of the orator Lycurgus, and of very many others. It was customary also to build new porticoes out of the spoils taken in great wars, as examples of which we have the Corcyraean por­tico at Elis, mentioned above, and the Persian por­tico at Sparta.

The open area of the Agora was originally tha place of public assembly for all purposes, and of general resort. Its use for political purposes is de­scribed in the preceding article. Here also were celebrated the public festivals. At Sparta, the part of the Agora in which stood the statues of Apollo, Artemis, and Leto, was called X^POS<> oe* cause the choruses of the Ephebi performed their dances there at the festival of the Gymnopaedia. (Pans. iii. 9.) Lastly, it was the place of social and fashionable resort. At Athens, fashionable loungers were called o/yaAjuara ayopas.

Originally the Agora was also the market, and was surrounded with shops, as shown in the above plan. As commerce increased, it was found con­venient to separate the traffic from the other kinds of business carried on in the Agora, and to assign to each its distinct place, though this was by no means universally the case. The market, whethei identical with, or separate from the Agora for po­litical and other assemblies, was divided into parts for the different sorts of merchandise, each of

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