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Out of this simple arrangement arose the magnificent ayopai of later times, which consisted of an open space, enclosed by porticoes or colonnades, divided into separate parts for the various occupations which were pursued in it, adorned with statues, altars, and temples, and built about with edifices for the transaction of public and private business, and for the administration of justice.
Our information respecting these edifices is rather scanty. The chief authorities are Pausanias and Vitruvius. The existing ruins are in such a state as to give us a very little help.
We, have, first of all, in this, as in other departments of architecture, to distinguish the ancient style from that introduced by the Greeks of Ionia after the Persian war, and more especially by Hippodamus of Miletus [see Diet, of Biog. s.-y.], whose connection with the building of ayopai of a new form is marked by the name M7r7roSayue*a, which was applied to the Agora in the Peiraeus. (Harpocr. s.v. 'iTnrofidfjLeia.) The general character of the Greek ayopd is thus described by Vitruvius (v. 1) : — " The Greeks arrange their fora in a square form, with very wide double colonnades, and adorn them with columns set near one another and with stone or marble entablatures, and they make walks in the upper stories."
Among the ayopai described by Pausanias, that of the Eleians is mentioned by him (vi. 24) as being " not on the same plan as those of the lo-nians and the Greek cities adjoining Ionia, but it is built in the more ancient fashion, with porticoes separated from one another, and streets between them. But the name of the Agora in our days is ffippodro?nos, and the people of the country exercise their horses there. But of the porticoes, the one towards the south is of the Dorian style of work, and the pillars divide it into three parts (in
this the Hellanodicae generally pass the day) : but against these (pillars) they place altars to Zeus ... To one going along this portico, into the Agora, there lies on the left, along the further side of this portico, the dwelling of the Hellanodicae (6 'EAAcH/oSi/cecoj/) : and there is a street which divides it from the Agora . . . And near the portico where the Hellanodicae pass the day, is another portico, there being one street between them : this the Eleians call the Corcyraean portico " (because it was built from the tithe of spoil taken from the Corcyraeans in war). " But the style of the portico is Dorian and double, having columns on the one side towards the Agora, and on the other side towards the parts beyond the Agora: and along the middle of it is a wall, which thus supports the roof: and images are placed on both sides against the wall.". He then proceeds to mention the ornaments of the Agora, namely, the statue of the philosopher Pyrrhon ; the temple and statue of Apollo Acesius ; the statues of the Sun and Moon ; the temple of the Graces, with their wooden statues, of which the dress was gilt, and the hands and feet were of white marble ; the temple of Seilenus, dedicated to him alone, and not in common with Dionysus ; and a monumental shrine, of peculiar form, without walls, but with oak pillars supporting the roof, which was reported to be the monument of Oxylus. The Agora also contained the dwelling of the sixteen females, who wove in it the sacred robe for Hera. It is worthy of remark that several of these details confirm the high antiquity which Pausanias assigns to this Agora.
Hirt has drawn out the following plan from the description of Pausanias. (Geschichte der Ban-' kunst bei den Alien, Taf. xxi. fig. 5.) We give it, not as feeling satisfied of its complete accuracy, but as a useful commentary on Pausanias.
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GROUND PLAN OP THE OLD AGORA At ELIS.
A, the chief open space of the agora, called, in the time of Pausanias, liippodromus : a, colonnades separated by streets, b: b, the Stoa in which the Hellanodicae sat, divided from the Agora by a street o : c, the house of the Hellanodicae: #, the Tholus : d, the Corcyraean Stoa, composed of two parts, c looking into the Agora, and d looking away from it: e9 <?, 7z, small temples: f, statues of the Sun and Moon : «, monument of Oxylus : k. house of the sixteen women.
Greek ayopai. With respect to the other parts, it is pretty evident that the chief open space, a, which Pausanias calls t£> viraiOpov ttjs ayopas, was devoted to public assemblies and exercise, and the cttocu (a), with their intervening streets (6), to private business and traffic. Hirt traces a resemblance of form between the Eleian agora and the Forum of Trajan. It is evident that the words of Vitruvius, above quoted, refer to the more modern, or Ionian form of the Agora, as represented in the following plan, which is also taken from Hirt [Geschichte der Baukunst, xxi. fig. I) : —- ,