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of the booty made in war, but was not allowed to vote in decisions upon peace and war. (Liv. xxxv. 25.) This was a wise precaution, as a sanguine strategus might easily have involved the league in wars which would have been ruinous to the nation. His name was signed to all public documents, treaties, and decrees of the general assembly. An exception occurs in the peace with the Romans, because they themselves dictated it and abandoned the usual form. (Polyb. xxii. 15.) Respecting the mode of election, we are informed by Hesychius (s. v. Kvd[jLct> irarpi&j), that it was decided by white and black beans, and not by voting, but by drawing lots, so that we must suppose the assembly nominated a number of candidates, who then had to draw lots, and the one who drew a white bean was strategus.
The officers next in rank to the strategus were the hipparchus and the public scribe. (Polyb. xxii. 15 ; comp. Liv. xxxviii. 11.) We further hear of crui/eSpoj, who act as arbiters (Bockh, Corp. Inscr. vol. ii. p. 633), and vouoypdtyoi, who however may have had no more to do with the writing down of laws, than the Athenian nomothetae. (Bockh, I.e. pp. 857, 858.)
With the exception of the points above men tioned, the constitution of the Aetolian league is involved in great obscurity. There are, however, two things which appear to have had an injurious effect upon the confederacy, first the circumstance that its members were scattered over a large tract of country, and that besides Aetolia Proper and some neighbouring countries, such as Locris and Thessaly, it embraced towns in the heart of Pelo ponnesus, the island of Cephalenia in the west, and in the east the town of Cius on the Propontis ; in the second place, many of the confederates had been forced to join the league, and were ready to abandon it again as soon as an opportunity offered. (Polyb. iv. 25 ; comp. xxii. 13, 15 ; Liv. xxxviii. 9, 11.) The towns which belonged to the league of course enjoyed isopolity ; but as it endeavoured to increase its strength in all possible ways, the Aetolians also formed connections of friendship and alliance with other states, which did not join the league. (Polyb. ii. 46.) The political existence of the league was destroyed in b. c. 189 by the treaty with Rome, and the treachery of the Roman party among the Aetolians themselves caused in b. c. 167 five hundred and fifty of the leading patriots to be put to death, and those who survived the massacre, were carried to Rome as prisoners. (Liv. xlv. 31 ; Justin, xxxiii. 2 ; comp. Tittmann, Darstellung der Ghieck. Staatsverf. p. 721, &c.; Lucas, Ueber Polyb. Darstellung des Aetol. Bundes^ Konigsberg, 1827, 4to. ; K. F. Hermann, Griech. Staatsalterth. § 183 ; Schorn, Geschichte Grieckenl. p.25,&c.; 'RTaxid$t'a,tQr.lDieGescJi.desAetol. Landes, Volkes und Bundes, p. 298, &c.) [L. S.]
AETOMA (ae'rco/m). [fastigium.] . AFFFNES, AFFFNITAS, or ADFFNES, ADFFNITAS. Affinitas is that relation into which one family comes with respect to another by a marriage between the members of the respective families ; but it is used more particularly to express the relation of husband and wife to the cognati of wife and husband respectively. The husband and wife were also aifines with respect to their being members of different families ; and the betrothed husband and wife (sponsus, sponsa) with reference to their intended marriage. Affinitas can only be
the result of a lawful marriage. There are no degrees of affinitas corresponding to those of cog-natio, though there are terms to express the various kinds of affinitas. The father of a husband is the socer of the husband's wife, and the father of a wife is the socer of the wife's husband ; the term socrus expresses the same affinity with respect to the husband's and wife's mothers. A son's wife is nurus or daughter-in-law to the son's parents ; a wife's husband is gener or son-in-law to the wife's parents.
Thus the avus, avia — pater, mater—of the wife become by the marriage respectively the socer magnus, pro socrus, or socrus magna—socer, socrus —of the husband, who becomes withrespect to them severally progener and gener. In like manner the corresponding ancestors of the husband respectively assume the same names with respect to the son's wife, who becomes with respect to them pronurus and nurus. The son and daughter of a husband or wife born of a prior marriage, are called privignus and privigna, with respect to their step-father or step-mother ; and, with respect to such children, the step-father and step-mother are severally called vitricus and noverca. The husband's brother be comes levir with respect to the wife, and his sister becomes Glos (the Greek ydXcas). Marriage was unlawful among persons who had become such affines as above-mentioned ; and the incapacity continued even after the dissolution of the marriage in which the affinitas originated. (Gaius, i. 63.) A person who had sustained such a capitis diminutio as to lose both his freedom and the civitas, lost also all his affines. (Dig. 38. tit. 10. s. 4 ; Booking, Institutionen^ vol. i. p. 267.) [G. L.]
AGALMA (tiyaX/jLa). [statuaria.]
AGASO, a groom, a slave whose business it was to take care of the horses. The word is also used for a driver of beasts of burthen, and is sometimes applied to a slave who had to perform the lowest menial duties. (Liv. xliii. 5 ; Plin. H. N. xxxv. 11 ; Curt. viii. 6 ; Hor. Serin, ii. 8. 72 ; Pers. v. 76.)
AGATHOERGI (ayaOoepyot). In time of war the kings of Sparta had a body-guard of 300 knights (iTTTreTs), of whom the five eldest retired every year, and were employed for one year, under the name of agathoergi in missions to foreign states. (Herod, i. 67.) It has been maintained by some writers that the agathoergi did not attain that rank merely by seniority, but were selected from the t7nre?s by the ephors without reference to age. (Ruhnken, Ad Timaei Lexic. Plat. s.v.; Hesych. s. v. ; Bekker, Anecd. vol. i. p. 209.)
AGELA (o/yeATj), an assembly of young men in Crete, who lived together from their eighteenth year till the time of their marriage. Up to the end of their seventeenth year they remained in their father's house ; and from the circumstance of their belonging to no agela, they were called aTTc^yeAoi. They were then enrolled in agelae^ which were of an aristocratic nature, and gave great power to particular families. An agela alwa}^ consisted of the sons of the most noble citizens, who were usually under the jurisdiction of the father of the youth who had been the means of col-
lecting the agela. It was the duty of this person, called dyeAarfjs1, to superintend the military and gymnastic exercises of the youths (who were called