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close union existing among the confederate towns was, according to Polybius (ii. 37), strengthened by their adopting common weights, measures, and coins.
But the perpetual discord of the members of the league, the hostility of Sparta, the intrigues of the Romans, and the folly and rashness of the later strategi, brought about not only the destruction and dissolution of the confederacy, but of the freedom of all Greece, which with the fall of Corinth, in B. c. 146, became a Roman province under the name of Achaia. (Comp. Schorn, GescJi. GriecJien-lands van der Entstehung des Aetol. u. Ach'disch. Bundes, especially pp. 49, &c. 60, &c.; A. Matthiae, Vermisclite Schriften, p. 239, &c.; Drumann, Ideen zur Gesch. des Verfalls der Griech. Staaten, p. 447 ; Tittmann, Ch^iecli. Staatsverfass. p. 673, &c.; K. F. Hermann, Griech. Staatsaltertli. § 185.) [L. S.]
ACHANE ('AxctvTj), a Persian and Boeotian measure, equivalent to 45 Attic medimni. (Aris- tot. ap. Scliol. ad Aristoph. Acliarn. 108,109 ; Suid. s. v.} According to Hesychius a Boeotian a%dj/77 was equal to one Attic medimnus. [P. S.]
ACINACES (a/aj/cta^s), a Persian sword, whence Horace (Carm. i. 27. 5) speaks of the Medus acinaces. It was a short and straight weapon, and thus differed from the Roman sica, which was curved. (Pollux, i. 138 ; Joseph. Ant. Jud. xx. 7. § 10. [SiCA.] It was worn on the right side of the body (insignis acinace deootro^ Val. Flacc. Argon, vi. 701), whereas the Greeks and Romans usually had their swords suspended on the left side.
The form of the acinaces, with the method of using it, is illustrated by the following Persepolitan figures. In all the bas-reliefs found at Persepolis, the acinaces is invariably straight, and is commonly suspended over the right thigh, never over the left, but sometimes in front of the body. The form of the acinaces is also seen in the statues of the god Mithras, one of which is figured in the cut on the title-page of this work.
A golden acinaces was frequently worn by the Persian nobility, and it was often given to individuals by the kings of Persia as a mark of honour. (Herod, viii. 120; Xen. Anab. i. 2. § 27, 8. § 29.)
The acinaces was also used by the Caspii. (Herod, vii. 67.) It was an object of religious Worship among the Scythians and many of the northern nations of Europe. (Herod, iv. 62 ; Comp. Mela, ii. 1; Amm. Marc. xxxi. 2.) [J. Y.]
ACNA or ACNUA (also spelt agna and agnua) was, according to Varro, the Italian name, and according to Columella, the common Baetican name of the actus quadratus. [AcTUS.] An old writer, quoted by Salmasius, says "agnua habet pedeg xini. cccc," i.e. 14,400 square feet. The name is almost certainly connected with the Greek &Kaiva9 though the measure is different. (Varro, R.R. i. 10. § 2 ; Colum. R. R. v. 2. § 5 ; Schneider, Comment, ad II. cc. ; Salmasius, ad Solin. p. 481.) [P. S.]
ACONTION (M6vriov\ [hasta.]
ACRATISMA (aKpcmffyua). [CoENA.]
ACROAMA (a/cp<i>a/m), any thing heard, and especially any thing heard with pleasure, signified a play or musical piece ; hence a concert of players on different musical instruments, and also an interlude, called embolia by Cicero (pro Sesct. 54), which was performed during the exhibition of the public games. The word is also applied to the actors and musicians who were employed to amuse guests during an entertainment (Cic. Verr. iv. 22 ; pro Arch. 9 ; Suet. Octav. 74 ; Macrob. Sat. ii. 4) ; and it is sometimes used to designate the anagnostae. [anagnostae.]
ACROLITHI (a,Kp6\iOoi), statues, of which the extremities (face, feet, and hands, or toes and fingers) only were of marble, and the remaining part of the body of wood either gilt, or, what seems to have been more usual, covered with drapery. The word occurs only in the Greek Anthology (Brunck, Anal. vol. iii. p. 155, No. 20 ; Antli. Pal. xii. 40), and in Vitruvius (ii. 8. § 11) ; but statues of the kind are frequently mentioned by Pausanias (ii. 4. § 1, vi. 25. § 4, vii. 21. §§ 4 or 10, vii. 23. § 5, viii. 25. § 4 or 6, viii. 31. § 1 or 2, and § 3 or 6, ix. 4. § 1.) It is a mistake to suppose that all the statues of this kind belonged to an earlier period. They continued to be made at least down to the time of Praxiteles. (Comp. Jacobs, Com ment, in Antli. 6rraec., vol. iii. Pt. 1. p. 298 ; and Winckelmann, Geschichte der Kunst, B. i. c. 2. §13.) [P.S.]
ACROPOLIS (a.KP6iro\is}. In almost all Greek cities, which were usually built upon a hill, rock, or some natural elevation, there was a kind of tower, a castle, or a citadel, built upon the highest part of the rock or hill, to which the name of acropolis was given. Thus we read of an acropolis at Athens, Corinth, Argos, Messene, and many other places. The Capitolium at Rome answered the same purpose as the Acropolis in the Greek cities ; and of the same kind were the tower of Agathocles at Utica (App. Pun. 14), and that of Antonia at Jerusalem. (Joseph. B. J. v. § 8, Act. Apostol. xxi. 34.) At Athens, the Acropolis served as the treasury, and as the names of all public debtors were registered there, the expression of " registered upon the Acropolis " (eyyeypa/m-v 'A/cpoTr^Aei) always means a public debtor a,KpoTr6\€i yeypa/JLuevoi., Dem. c. TIteocr. p. 1337. 24 ; Bockh. Publ. Econ. of Atliens, p. 388, 2nd edit.).
ACROSTOLIUM (a/cpooWAio*/). [navis.]
ACROTERIUM (awrpajr^ptoi/) signifies an extremity of any thing. It is generally used in the plural.
1. In Architecture it seems to have been used originally in the same sense as the