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1331

ZONARAS.

tain, in the opinion of Raoul-Rochette, that the name is that of the engraver of the medals. (Lettre a M. Sclorn, p. 98, 2d ed.)

2. A sculptor of Corinthian vases, in the house­ hold of Agrippa, according to Raoul-Rochette's interpretation of the inscription, ZOILI. CORIN- THIAR . AGRIPP. The matter is, however, doubtful. (R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Schorn, p. 430, 2d ed.) [P. S.]

ZON ARAS, JOANNES ('Icoaz/^s 6 Zwrapas), a celebrated Byzantine historian and theologian, lived in the twelfth century under the emperors Alexis I. Comnenus and Calo-Joannes. During the reign of Alexis he held the high offices of Great Drungarius, or commander of the emperor's body-guards, and of Protoasecretis (Upwroao-Tjicpr]-Tis), or first private secretary of the emperor ; but he quitted the world during the reign of Calo-Joannes, and retired to the monastery on Mount Athos, where he spent the remainder of his life in the composition of the various works mentioned below. He is frequently quoted by subsequent Byzantine writers, who all speak of his learning and abilities in terms of the highest praise. He is said to have died at the age of 88 years, and to have been buried in the monastery of St. Elias. The follow­ing is a list of his works which have been printed: —

1. Xpovutov, or Annettes^ in 18 books, from the creation of the world to the death of Alexis in a. d. 1118. It is compiled from various Greek authors, whose very words Zonaras frequently re­tains. The earlier part is chiefly taken from Jo-sephus ; and in the portion which relates to Roman history he has for the most part followed Dion Cassius. In consequence of the latter circumstance the Annals of Zonaras are of great importance in studying the early history of Rome. Of the first twenty books of Dion Cassius we have nothing but the abstract of Zonaras ; and even of the later books, of which Xiphilinus has made a more full epitome, Zonaras has preserved many,statements of Dion which are entirely omitted by Xiphilinus [xiphilinus]. In the latter part of his work Zonaras wrote as an eye-witness of the events he describes, but with a brevity which is surprising, considering the many interesting and important occurrences of his time. His deficiencies, however, in this respect are amply supplied by Anna Com-nena, the daughter of the emperor Alexis. [CoM-nena.] The history of Zonaras was continued by Nicetas Acominatus, whose work commences at the death of Alexis. [nicetas.] The first edition of the Annals of Zonaras was printed under the superintendence of H. Wolf, Basel, 1557, 3 vols. fol. The next edition, which was much improved, formed part of the Paris collection of Byzantine writers, and was edited by Du Fresne Du Cange, Paris, 1686, 2 vols. fol.: it was reprinted in the Venice edition of the Byzantine writers. The last and best edition is by Pinder, Bonn, 1841, &c. 8vo., which is not yet complete: it forms part of the Bonn collection of Byzantine writers.

2. 'Svvaytoy}] Ae£ewz> eruAA e'yeTcra e/c ftiafyopwv v, iraXaias re <pr]fjLi ypatyTJs ical rrjs vea,s kol\ stjttou rys frtipaQev. This Lexicon was pub­lished for the first time by J. A. H. Tittmann, Lips. 1808, 2 vols. 4to. Tittmann thinks that it is the same work as Suidas quotes under the title of 'Eru-ILoXoyutbv &\\o or Seurepov, in which case it could not have been compiled by Zonaras, as Suidas pro­bably lived in the tenth century,

ZOPYRUS.

3. 5E£^77](ns rwv tepcS*/ kcu foeiwv KavSvuv, &e., an Exposition of the Canons of the Apostles, Councils, and Fathers. The Exposition of the Apostolical Canons was printed, with a Latin translation, by J. Quintinus, Paris, 1558 ; and the Exposition of the Canons of the Councils and Fathers was printed by Antonius Salmatia, Milan, 1613.. Both parts of the work were published in Greek and Latin by Beveridge (Beveregius), in his Pandcctae Canonum, Oxford, 1672, fol.

4. Aoyos irpbs robs rty <pvoriK7]V rf)S yovrjs e/cpo^v /xta(r,ua ^ou/xeVovs, printed in Bonefidius, Jus Orientate, 1573, 8vo., and in Leunclavius, Jus Graeco-Romanum, vol. i. p. 351.

5. 3EK TTpocr&irov rwv ap^tepewv irepl rov ^ 8£<re£a§eAc£>ov$ tt?j> aur^j/ ayayecrdat irpbs to show that two nephews ought not to marry the same woman, printed in Cotelerius, Mo­nument. Eccles. Graecae, vol. ii. p. 483, foil., Paris, 1681, 4to.

There are several other works of Zonaras in manuscript, the titles of which are given by Fa-bricius. (Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. xi. p. 222, foil., vol. vii. p. 465, foil. ; Scholl, Geschichte der Grieeli-ischen Litteratur, vol. iii. pp. 155, 247, 467.) ZONAS. [diodorus zonas, Vol. I. p. 1017.] ZOPYRINUS (Z«7rfyuws), the author of a work on cookery ('OtJ/apTim/ca, Athen. xiv. p. 662, d.).

ZOPYRION (ZcoTrupiW). 1. An historical writer, mentioned by Josephus (c. Apion. i. 23).

2. A grammarian, the author of the first part of the Aei/ucvv Ae£ecoz> iroiKiXtav (from A to E), of the remainder of which Pamphilus was the author. [pamphilus.] [C. P. M.]

ZOPYRUS (ZcSTrvpos), historical. 1. A dis­tinguished Persian, son of Megabyzus, one of the seven chiefs who killed the false Smerdis, served under Dareius against Babylon, which had revolted at the commencement of his reign. After Dareius had besieged the city for twenty months in vain, Zopyrus resolved to gain the place for his master by the most extraordinary self-sacrifice. Accord­ingly, one day he appeared before Dareius, with his body mutilated in the most horrible manner ; both his ears and nose were cut off, and his person other­wise disfigured. After explaining to Dareius his intentions and concerting measures with him, he fled to Babylon as a victim of the cruelty of the Persian king. The Babylonians, seeing one of the most distinguished Persians in such a horrible condition, readily gave him their confidence, and placed him at the head of their troops. He soon found means to betray the city to Dareius, who severely punished the inhabitants for their revolt. Dareius appointed Zopyrus satrap of Babylon for life, with the enjoyment of its entire revenues, and also bestowed upon him many other marks of his confidence and esteem. He was accustomed to say that he would rather have Zopyrus without wounds than possess twenty Babylons. (Herod, ki. 153— 160.)

Ctesias places the revolt of Babylon in the reign of Xerxes. He relates that the Babylonians .lew their satrap Zopyrus, and that Megabyzus, the son of Zopyrus, betrayed the city to Xerxes by means of the same stratagem which Herodotus ascribes to Zopyrus. [megabyzus, No. 2.] But the account of Herodotus is preferable on many accounts. (See Grote, Hist, of Greece, vol. iv. p. 310, note.)

2. The son of Megabyzus, and the grandson of :

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