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1. Surnamed Carbonopsina, the wife of Leo VI. the philosopher, who reigned A. d. 886- 911. She survived her husband, and her effigy appears on the coins of her son Constantinus VII. Porphyro-genitus. (Eckhel, vol. viii. pp. 246—248.) [Lflo VI.; constantinus VII.]
2. The daughter of Constantinus IX. was married first to Romanus III. Argyrus, who succeeded her father on the throne, and reigned a, d. 1028— 1034. Towards the end of her husband's reign, though she was then about 50 years of age, she carried on a criminal intrigue with the general Michael, surnamed the Paphlagonian ; and that she might be able to gratify her pleasures without1 restraint she caused her husband to be murdered, and raised Michael to the throne, whom she then married. Michael IV. the Paphlagonian, reigned from a. d. 1034—1041 ; and on his death, she was persuaded by the people to reign in her own name. A few days made Zoe repent her ambition, and she placed the crown on the head of Michael V. Calaphates, whom her second husband had adopted in his life-time. The new emperor showed the basest ingratitude to his benefactress, and commenced his reign by banishing Zoe. This and other imprudent acts caused an insurrection at Constantinople. Michael was deposed at the end of a year's reign, and Zoe and her sister Theodora were proclaimed co-empresses on the 21st of April, 1042. The t\yo sisters reigned together for about two months; but as they feared for their position, Zoe, who was then about 60, married a third husband, whom she raised to the throne, and who is known by the name of Constantinus X. Monoma-chus. She died in 1050 while her third husband was still alive. [constantinus IX. ; romanus III.; mtchael IV. and V.; constantinus X.]
ZOETEUS (Zowerfs), a son of Tricolonus, and founder of the town of Zoetia in Arcadia. (Paus. viii. 35. § 6 ; Steph. Byz. s. v). [L. S.]
2. A grammarian, who, according to the greater number of authorities, was a native of Amphipolis. By others (Schol. ad Iliad, v. 4 ; Eustath. p. 387) he is called an Ephesian. The age in which he lived has been the subject of some discussion, as the authorities are irreconcileably at variance. The great majority of them (Suid. s. v. ; Aelian. V. H. xi. 10 ; Dionys. de Isaeo, p. 627, de Vi DemostJi. p. 974 ; Suid. s. v. Arj/uoo-devris) make him contemporary with the disciples of Isocrates. On the other hand, there is a passage in Vitruvius, which assigns him to the age of Ptolemaeus Philadelphus (Praefat. ad lib. VII.). He is said by Vitruvius to have come to Alexandria in the hope of securing the patronage of the king, who, however, was indignant at the manner in which he treated the poems of Homer, and paid no regard to him. Various accounts were given of his having met with a violent death (L c.). But though it is within the limits of possibility that Zoilus lived to see the accession of Ptolemaeus Philadelphus, this, as Clinton says (Fasti Hellen. iii. p. 381), does not satisfy the details of the account of Vitruvius, which, when closely examined, proves to be inconsistent with itself. The safest course, therefore, is to reject it altogether. " Zoilus began to be eminent before the rise of Demosthenes, and continued to write after the death of Philip." (Clinton, 1. c. p. 485.)
Zoilus was celebrated for the asperity with which he assailed Homer, from which he derived the epithet of 'O/jL-npo/jLdffri^. (Suid. s. v.; Schol. ad II. v. 7, 20, i. 129, x. 274, xviii. 22, xxii. 209, xxiii. 100; Eustath. ad Od. p. 1614 ; Schol. in Plat. HipparcJi. p. 240.) He found fault with him principally for introducing fabulous and incredible stories in his poems. From the list that we have of his writings, it also appears that he attacked Plato and Isocrates. His name became proverbial for a captious and malignant critic. (Inge-nium magni livor detrectat Homeri. Quisquis es9 exillo, Zoile, nomen kabes, Ovid. Rein. Am. 366.) He was also styled KiW prjropiK6s (Aelian. V. H. xi. 10.) It is worthy of note, however, that Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Ep. ad Pomp. c. 1) speaks of him with considerable respect, and does not hesitate to class him among critics of the highest rank. The following works of Zoilus are mentioned: — 1. Ilepl 'AjiupnroAecos /3i§Aia rpia (Suid. I. c.). 2. 'Icrropia own) ©eoyovias ecas ttjs QiXiTTTTOV r€\€vr9js (ibid.). 3. Kara 'ItroKpdrovs tov prjropos (ibid.). 4. Kara rrjs 'OjA'fipov TroiTjcrews Xoyoi «Wa. 5. ¥070$ 'O^pov. Unless this is only another name for the preceding (ibid. Ael. L c.; Dionys. I. c.; Plut. Symp. v. p. 677 ; Schol. ad Horn. II. II. cc.) 6. Kara UXdrcavos (Aelian. 1. c.;Dionys. ad Pomp. p. 752). 7. Te/>e5io>z> e'7/cc«5-fjt-iov (Strab.'vi. p. 271). 8. A work on the figures of speech, from which Quintilian quotes, with disapprobation, a definition of <r%?7jua (Quint, ix. 1. § 14, comp. Phoebammon de Fig. p. 588, ed. Aid.). None of these have come down to us. The story told by Suidas of his having been thrown headlong down the Scironiaii rocks, is probably as fabulous as the other accounts of a similar kind given by Vitruvius. (Fabric. Bibl. Gr. vol. i. p. 559, &c.; Voss. de Hist. Gr. p. 130, &c.)
3. A grammarian of the name of Zoilus is introduced by Athenaeus (i. 1) among the Deipnoso-phistae.
5. A native of Cyprus, an artificer, mentioned by Plutarch (Demetr. 21).
6. Tyrant of Caesarea, mentioned by Josephus (Ant. Jud. xiii. 20).
7. Others of this name, not worth mentioning here, are enumerated by Fabricius (BibL Gr. vol. i. p. 561, &c.). fC. P. M.]
ZOILUS (Zw'iAos), a physician, who must have lived in or before the first century after Christ, as he is quoted by Andromachus the younger (ap. Gal. De Compos. Mcdicam. sec. log. iii. 1, vol. xii. p. 632). He appears to have given particular attention to diseases of the eye, as he is called 6 6(pda\^.LK6s. Several of his medical formulae are preserved by Galen (ibid. iv. 8, pp. 752, 763, 771 ; De Antid. ii. 12, vol. xiv. p. 178), Alexander Trallianus (ii. 5, p. 173), Aetius (ii. 3. 11, 113. pp. 304,360,361), and Nicolaus Myrepsus (xxiv. 25. p. 658). See C. G. Kiihn, Index Medicor. Ocularior. inter Graecos Romanosq. Fascic. xi. [W. A. G.]
ZOILUS (ZcoiAos), artists. 1. A medallist, whose name occurs on the coins of Perseus, king of Macedonia, in such a manner as to make it cer-