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the third and beginning of the second centuries b. c., as he was a contemporary of Apollonius Em-piricus [apollonius, p. 245], with whom he carried on a controversy respecting the meaning of certain marks (xapcwTT^es) that are found at the end of some of the chapters of the third book of the Epidemics of Hippocrates. (Galen, ibid. ii. 5. p. 618.) He gave particular attention to materia medica (Gels. De Medic, v. praef. p. 81.), and is perhaps the physician whose medical formulae are quoted by Galen (De Antid. ii. 10, 11, vol. xiv. pp. 163, 171), in which case he must have been a native of Laodiceia. He is mentioned in several other passages by Galen, and also by Erotianus (Gloss. Hippocr. pp. 86, 216, ed. Franz.) ; perhaps also by Pliny (H. N. xxii. 44), Caelius Aurelianus (De Morb. C/iron. iv. 7. p. 530), Alexander Aphro-clisiensis (De Febr. c. 2. p. 82, ed. Ideler), and Rufus Ephesius (De Appell. Part. Corp. Hum. i. 36. p. 44.), but this is uncertain. (See Littre's Oeuvres d' 'Hippocr. vol. i. p. 91, and Sprengel's Gesch. der Arzneikunde, vol. i. ed. 1846.)

2. A native of Cyprus in the fourth century after Christ, the tutor of lonicus, Magnus, and Oribasius. (Eunap. Vit. Philos.) He taught and practised his profession at Alexandria, whence he was expelled by the Bishop George of Cappadocia [georgius, p. 248], who persecuted both the heathen and the orthodox Christians with equal bitterness. He was however restored to his country and office by command of the emperor Julian, probably a. d. 361 or 362 ; and a letter from the emperor to Zenon is still extant, in which he speaks very highly not only of his medical skill but also of his general character. (Jul. Epist.}

3. A native of Athens, mentioned in the spurious work De Medicinis Eocpertis, ascribed to Galen ; whose exact date is unknown, but who may have lived in the fourth or fifth century after Christ. [W. A. G.]

ZENON (7A]V<av), artists. 1. Of Soli, statuary.


2. The son of Attis, or Attines, was a native of Aphrodisias in Caria, and a sculptor evidently of considerable eminence in the period of the Roman empire. He is thought to have lived about the time of Trajan. Three works are still extant inscribed with his name. One is a sitting statue, apparently of a senator, in the Villa Ludovisi, bearing the following inscription on the margin of the robe : —





The second is a monument to the memory of his son, who is represented in the form of a half clad Hermes. The work bears a metrical inscription, in nineteen lines, to the following effect: — "The country of me, Zeno, is the blessed Aphrodisias * ; but having travelled through many cities, confident in my artistic powers, and having made for my

* Here is a decisive proof, in addition to others, that Winckelmann was wrong in interpreting the word 'AQpoSia-ievs in this and other inscriptions as of Aphrodisium in Cyprus. We shall have to add a remark presently on the inscriptions of Aphro­disias in Caria.



young son Zeno, who died before me, a tomb and a pillar, I myself also with my own hands sculp­tured likenesses, having wrought out by my art a famous work."f This inscription seems to imply that the tomb was intended for the artist himself as well as for his son. The error of Winckel­mann, in making out of it a second Zenon of an unknown city, Staphis, is corrected in Meyer's note. The Hermes, which was the chief part of this monument, was formerly preserved in the Villa Negroni, and passed into the possession of Mr. Jenkins with the rest of that collection. We have failed to discover its subsequent history.

The third extant work of Zenon is a female statue, clothed with a very thin stola, in marble, found at Syracuse, where it is still preserved* The base bears the inscription —


(Winckelmann, Gesch. d. Kunst, b. xi. c. 3. § 26, and Vorl'dufige Abhandlungen, §§ 194, 195, with Meyer's notes ; Visconti, Mus. Jenkins, cl. iv. No. 18, p. 36 ; R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Schorn, p. 429 ; Bockh, Corp. Inscr. vol. iii. Nos. 5374, 6151.)

In the inscriptions relating to this artist and to Aristeas and Papias (see aristeas), we have evidence of the existence of a school of distin­ guished sculptors at Aphrodisias in the time of Trajan, the Antonines, and their successors ; to which also Zenas appears to have belonged. [zenas.] The prevalence of all these names of persons at Aphrodisias is attested by other ex­ tant inscriptions. (See Bockh, Corp. Inscr., pt. xiii. sect. iv. vol. ii. Nos. 2768, 2775, 2781, 2787.) [P. S.]

ZENON or ZENO, ecclesiastical. In the year 1508 a volume was published (Venet. ap. Bened. Fontana) containing 105 sermons, divided into three books, ascribed to St. Zeno, bishop of Verona, from a MS. discovered during the fifteenth century by Guarini, in the episcopal library of that city. It was soon remarked that the Roman Martyrologies placed St. Zeno in the reign of Gallienus, while these dis­courses evidently belonged to a later epoch, and several pieces were detected in the series which were known to be the work of other hands. Hence Sixtus Senensis (Biblioth. Sanct. iv.) contended that the whole collection was to be regarded as a medley compiled from the writings of many differ­ent divines, and altogether excluded the name of Zeno from the catalogue of ecclesiastical authors. This hypothesis, although frequently controverted, was never confuted until the brothers Ballerini, presbyters of the Church in Verona, undertook to vindicate the memory of an ancient bishop of their diocese, and after a laborious investigation of ori­ginal documents and a careful separation of all spurious and foreign mattej proved incontestably that 93 Sermones, 16 of considerable length, the rest comparatively brief, on various subjects of faith, morals, and discipline, were the productions of Zeno, who was ordained bishop of Verona, not under Gallienus as had been supposed, but a can-

't1 We cannot answer for the perfect accurary of this translation. The original is so constructed that it is difficult to see the exact relation between the verbs, the participles, and the accusatives.

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