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Suidas mentions only two grammarians of the name of Zenodotus, the Ephesian and the Alexandrine ; but besides these we read of two others, Zenodotus 6 MaAX^r^s, that is, of Mallus (Theon, ad Arat. Phaen. 33) ; and Zenodotus 6 Kpar^refo.v, that is, a disciple of Crates. (Schol. ad Horn. II. xxiii. 79.) Wolf thinks (Prolegom. p. cxcix.) that the two last are the same person as the Alexandrine ; that he was called of Mallus from the place of his birth, the Alexandrine from the place of his residence, and the Cratetean, from his being a disciple of Crates, who was also a native of Mallus. He remarks that as Crates was the great opponent of Aristarchus, his disciple would naturally be the adversary of the same great scholar. It may readily be admitted that Zeno­dotus of Mallus and Zenodotus the disciple of Crates are the same person ; but it appears impro­bable that the same person should have had two such opposite surnames as b ev acrrei and MaAAc6-Tt)s. We are therefore disposed to adopt the views of Diintzer and other scholars that there were three grammarians of this name, 1. Zenodotus of Ephesus, 2. Zenodotus of Alexandria, and 3. Zenodotus of Mallus, the disciple of Crates. It is very likely however that some of the works assigned by Suidas to the Alexandrine were written by the disciple of Crates. (Diintzer, De Zenodoti Studiis Ho?nericis9 pp. 24, 25.)

3. Of troezen, wrote a history of Umbria, in which he spoke of the rape of the Sabine women. (Dionys. ii. 49 ; Plut. Rom. 14.)

4. The stoic, a disciple of Diogenes, wrote an Epigram on Zenon, which is quoted by Diogenes Laertius (vii. 29, 30).

5. The epigrammatist, one of whose epigrams is preserved in the Greek Anthology (vii. 315).

6. The aetolian, mentioned by Caesar Ger-manicus at the commencement of his Commentary on the Pkaenomena of Aratus.

7. A neo-platonic philosopher, was a fa­vourite of Proclus, whom he succeeded in his school. (Phot. Cod. 181, p. 127, a. 3, Cod. 242, p. 346, a. 24, ed. Bekker.)

8. The sophist, more usually called Zenobius. [zenobius.]

ZENON (7A\vu>v\ historical. 1. An officer in the service of Antiochus the Great, who left him in charge of the city of Sardis, when he himself went to Apamea (Liv. xxxvii. 44).

2. An officer in the service of .king Philippus. He was one of the governors of Athamania, being stationed at Theium. When Athamania revolted, he held out against the insurgents for a few days, but was eventually compelled to retire. When Philippus invaded Athamania, Zenon was sent to take possession of Ethopia. He found it neces­sary, however, to retire to a stronger position when attacked by the Athamanians. The greater part of his forces were killed ; he himself with a few others escaped to the king. (Liv. xxxviii. 1, &c.)

3. Son of Polemon, king of Pontus, was crowned king of Armenia by Germanicus at Artaxata, A. d. 18. From the name of the city where he was crowned, the name Artaodas was bestowed upon him. (Tac. Annal. ii. 56.)

4. Surnamed Cotylas, tyrant of Philadelphia, mentioned by Josephus. (Ant. Jud. xiii. 8. § 1, 2ML Jud. i. 2. § 4.) [C. P. M.J


ZENON (7A\vuv], philosophers. 1. Of citium, a city in the island of Cyprus, founded by Phoe­nician settlers. He was the son of Mnaseas. Some authorities assign other names to his father, but with less probability (Diog. Lae'rt. vii. 1, ib. Me-nag.). He is said to have been early won over to the pursuit of philosophy through books of the Socratics, which his father was accustomed to bring back from Athens when he went thither on trading voyages ; and to have devoted himself to it entirely when (through the direction of an oracle, as is said) at the age of 22, or, according to others, 30 years, having been shipwrecked in the neigh­bourhood of Peiraeeus, he was led to settle in Athens (ibid. 2, 4, 5, 28). Whether he lost all his property in the shipwreck (Seneca, de Tranqu. Animi) c. 14 ; Plut. de cap. ex host. Utilitate, p. 87, a), or, what is considerably less likely, remained in possession of a fabulous fortune of 1000 talents (Diog. Lae'rt. vii. 13, comp.15, 22, 5), his moderation and contentment had become proverbial (Zrjycoi/os eyKpaT€(TTepos9 Diog. Lae'rt. 27, &c., comp. 26, 13, 16; Suid. s. v.\ and an admiring recognition of his virtues shines through even the ridicule of the comic poets (Philemon, Posidippus, &c. ; Diog. Lae'rt. vii. 27, &c.; Clem. Alex. Strom. ii. p. 413). Though weakness of body is said to have first de­termined him to live rigorously and simply (Diog. Lae'rt. vii. 1 j Antig. Caryst. ap. Atlien. xii. 2), and harden himself (Diog. Lae'rt. 26, &c.), yet an in­clination for being independent of want seems already at an early period to have come in as an additional motive, and to have led him to the cynic Crates, to whom, however, he could only attach himself with a twofold reservation ; for he could not adopt either the contempt for established usages which characterised their mode of life, nor their scorn of free and comprehensive knowledge (Ibid. 3, 17, 22). Yet he seems to have been still entirely under their influence when he wrote his IIo?viT6ia (Ibid. 4 ; comp. Plut. de Alex. fortit. i. 6). When it was that, against the dissuasion of Crates, he betook himself to the Megaric Stilpo (Diog. Lae'rt. vii. 24. 2), we do not learn ; and equally scanty are the accounts which we have respecting his intercourse with the two other con­temporary Megarics, Diodorus Cronus and Philon (ibid. 16, 25, 15, 16) on the one hand, and with the Academics, Xenocrates and Polemon (ibid. 2, 35, comp. Suid. s. v.) on the other. Only from the logic of the Stoics we see that in this branch of science they approached considerably nearer to the Megarics than to the Academics. The period which Zenon thus devoted to study is extended by one unauthenticated statement to twenty years. (Diog. Lae'rt. vii. 4, comp. 2.) . At its close, and after he had developed his peculiar philosophical system, to which he must already have gained over some disciples, he opened his school in the porch adorned with the paintings of Polygnotus (Stoa Poicile), which, at an earlier time, had been a place in which poets met (Era­tosthenes in Diog. Lae'rt. vii. 5). From it his disciples were called Stoics, a name which had before been applied to the above-mentioned poets, and by which also the grammarians who assembled there probably at a later time were known. Pre­viously his disciples were called Zenonians. Among the warm admirers of Zenon was king Antigonus Gonatas of Macedonia: for although the cor­respondence between the two, professing to have

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