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Zenobia. It is recorded that, stimulated by the jealousy of a stepmother, she consented to the death of her husband, because he seemed to prefer Herodes his son by a former wife, to Herennianus and Timolaus, his children by herself. This charge, not improbable in itself when we recollect the vindictive passions which so often rage in the ze­ nana of an Eastern despot, is characterised by Gib­ bon as a very unjust suspicion, but he forgets that it rests upon the same authority with nearly all the particulars which he has admitted without hesitation in regard to her career, the rumours, namely, collected by the Augustan historian. The fact that speedy vengeance was inflicted on the assassin may have been dictated by remorse and prudence. (Trebell. Pollio, Trig. Tyrann.; comp. Zonar. xii. 27.) [W. R.]


ZENOBIUS (Zrjv6§Los), sometimes erroneously called zenodotus, was a writer who lived at Rome in the time of Hadrian. He was the author of a collection of proverbs, which was an epitome of the works of Lucillus Tarrhaeus and Didymus of Alexandria. The latter were themselves by no means the most ancient compilers of works of that kind. Zenobius, Athenaeus, and Suidas attribute works on proverbs to Aristotle, Clearchus of Soli, Theaetetus, Chrysippus, &c. In the work of Ze­nobius the proverbs are arranged alphabetically, and divided into hundreds. The last division is incomplete, the total number collected being 552. This collection was first published by Phil. Junta (Florence, 1497). It was next published in the Aldine collection of fabulists. There is a separate edition by Vincentius Opsopoeus (Hagenau, 1575). It is also found in the collection of Andreas Schot-tus (Tlapoi(j.iai 'EAA^w/ccu, Antverp, 1612). A Latin translation was published by Gilbertus Cog-natus (Basil. 1559). Zenobius was also the author of a Greek translation of Sallust, which, so far as is known, is not extant; a work entitled TeveO-XiaKov, addressed to the emperor Hadrian, and some other work. (Suid. s. v.; Fabric. Bibl. Grace. vol. v. p. 109 ; Scholl, GescMchte der GriecJi. Lit. vol. ii. p. 540.)

There was another grammarian of this name, the author of an epigram (ap. Brunck, ii. p. 402). [C. P. M.]

ZENOBIUS, St. (ztjvo&os), a native of Aegae in Cilicia, born of Christian parents, and carefully brought up. He at first studied medicine, and practised with great skill and liberality, giving advice and medicines gratuitously, and also nourish­ment to such as were in want of it. He afterwards became bishop of Aegae, and during the persecution under Diocletian was put to death together with Ms sister Zenobia by Lysias, the prefect of Cilicia about the year 304. An interesting account of his life and death is given by Simeon Metaphrastes, ap. Surium, De Probatis /Sanctor. Historiis, vol. v. Oct. 30. See also Mend. Graec. vol. i. Oct. 31;



Bzovius, Nomenclator Sanctor. Professione Me-dicor. Oct. 30.

2. The physician mentioned by Eusebius {Hist. Eccles. viii. 13) as having been a presbyter at Sidon, who was also put to death during the per­secution under Diocletian, about the year 304, ap­pears to have been a different person. [ W. A. G.]

ZENODORUS (Z-nv6ti<opos), tetrarch of Tra-chonitis and the surrounding country, disturbed his neighbours by his predatory incursions, and was in consequence deprived by Augustus of almost all his possessions, which were given to Herod about b. c. 24. When Augustus came to Syria in b. c. 20, Zenodorus appeared before the emperor to beg for a restitution of his dominions, but he died suddenly at Antioch in the course of the same year, and the remainder of his territories was like­wise bestowed upon Herod. There are coins extant struck by Zenodorus. The specimen annexed contains on the obverse the head of Augustus, and on the reverse that of Zenodorus. (Joseph. Ant. xv. 10. §§ 1—3, B. J. i. 15. s. 20. § 4 ; Dion Cass. liv. 9; Strab. xvi. p. 756; Eckhel,vol. iii. p. 496.)


ZENODORUS, a Greek artist, whose native place is not stated ; but, from the fact of his begin­ning his career in Gaul, Thiersch conjectures that he may have been a native of Massiiia. He flou­rished in the reign of Nero, and was distinguished alike for the two immense colossi which he erected, and for the beauty with which he executed deli­cate works in silver-chasing. He made for the Arverni, in Gaul, a colossus of Mercury, which surpassed all similar works in magnitude, and which cost forty millions of sesterces (335,000£, according

to the most probable reading, HS. CCCC), and which occupied the artist ten years in its con­struction. While engaged on this great work, he also employed himself in silver-chasing, and copied the engraving on two cups by Calamis with such skill that the difference of the workmanship could scarcely be detected (ut vix ulla differentia esset artis). He was supplied with the originals by Dubius Avitus, the governor of the province, who had obtained them from his uncle Cassius Silanus, to whom they had been presented by his pupil Germanicus. After the proof of his skill in the statue of Mercury, Zenodorus was invited to Rome by Nero to make the colossal statue of that em­peror, which he set up in front of the golden house, and which was afterwards dedicated afresh by Vespasian as a statue of the Sun. It was 110 feet in height. Pliny tells us that he saw the work in the artist's studio, and was astonished at the striking likeness exhibited, not only in the clay model, but even in the earlier stage, the frame­work or skeleton of little sticks, which formed the groundwork of the whole work. (Mirabamur in

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