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little correction and modification, to allow us to describe it as a profound conviction that God, in the constitution of things, has given a moral govern­ment to the world, as manifestly as he has given laws for the mechanical and chemical actions of matter, the organisation of plants and animals, and the vital energies of all beings which live and move.

There are numerous editions of the whole and of the separate works of Xenophon. The Helle-nica, the first of Xenophon's works that appeared in type, was printed at Venice, 1503, fol. by the elder Aldus, with the title of Paralipomena, and as a supplement to Thucydides, which was printed the year before. The first general edition is that of E. Boninus, printed by P. Giunta, and dedicated to Leo X., Florence, 1516, fol. ; but this edition does not contain the Agesilaus, the Apology, and the treatise on the Revenue of Athens. A part of the treatise on the Athenian Commonwealth is also wanting. This edition of Giunta is a very good specimen of early printing, and useful to an editor of Xenophon. The edition by Andrea of Asola, printed by Aldus at Venice, 1525, folio, contains all the works of Xenophon, except the Apology ; though the Apology was already edited by J. Reuchlin, Hagenau, 1520, 4to., with the Agesilaus and If zero. The Basel edition, printed by N. Bry-linger, 1545, fol. is the first edition of the Greek text with a Latin translation. The edition of H. Stephens, 1561, fol., contains an amended text, and the edition of 1581 has a Latin version. The edition of Weiske, Leipzig, 1798—1804, 6 vols. 8vo., did something towards the improvement of the text. The most pretending edition is that of Gail, Paris, 6 vols. 4to. 1797—1804 ; a seventh volume, in three parts, published afterwards, con­tains the various readings of three MSS., notices on the MSS. and observations, literary and critical, and an Atlas of maps and plans. This edition contains the Greek text, the Latin version, a French version and notes ; the Latin version is that of Leunclavius, occasionally corrected ; and the French is not entirely new, for the author took the French versions already existing of various parts of Xeno­phon's works. Letronne, in his article on Xenophon (Biocf. Univ.), has given an account of this pompous edition, which has very little merit. J. G. Schneider revised the edition of Zeune, and the various parts of the works of Xenophon appeared between 1791 and 1815. The editions of the several works are too numerous to be mentioned.

Fabricius (Bibliotheca Graeca), Scholl (Gescliiclite der Griechischen Literatur), Letronne (Biog. Univ. art. Xenophon), and Hoffmann (Lexicon Bibliogra- phicum) will furnish full information about the numerous editions and translations. As to the seven Epistles attributed to Xenophon, among the one and forty so-called Socratic Epistles, the same remark applies to them as to most of the Greek literary remains of that class ; they are mere rhe­ torical essays. [G. L.]

XENOPHON (H6j>o0«*>), minor literary per­sons. 1. An Athenian, the brother of the poet Pythostratus. He wrote a biography of Epami-nondas and Pelopidas, and some other works. (Diog, Lae'rt. ii. 59.)

2. An historical writer, the author of an account of Hannibal (ibid.).

3. A native of Lampsacus, a writer on geo­graphy, mentioned by Pliny (H.N. iv. 13, vi. 31) and Solinus (c. 22, 60). He was also in all pro-



bability the author of a irep'nrXovs, mentioned by Pliny (vii. 48 ; comp. Voss. de Hist. Gr. p. 510, note 34).

4. A native of Antioch, the author of an ama­tory narrative, or collection of narratives, entitled Ea€v\caviKa. (Suid. s. v.)

5. A native of Ephesus, the author of a romance, still extant, entitled Ephesiaca, or the Loves of Anthia and Abrocomas ('E^ecrtaKa, to. Karct, 3Av-Qiav Kal 'A^po/co^j/). The style of the work is simple, and the story is conducted without confu­sion, notwithstanding the number of personages in­troduced. The adventures are of a very improbable kind. Suidas is the only ancient writer who men­tions Xenophon. The age when he lived is un­certain. Locella assigns him to the age of the Antonines. Peerlkamp regards him as the oldest of the Greek romance writers, and thinks that he has discovered in other writers of this class traces of an imitation of Xenophon. He also maintains that Xenophon was not the real name of the author, and that, with the exception of Heliodorus, no Greek romance writer published his productions under his real name.

Since Suidas, Angelus Politianus (in the 15th century) was the first writer who mentioned the Ephesiaca of Xenophon. But although he had quoted a passage from the work, its existence Avas doubted or denied by several scholars of the 17th century. Even after an Italian translation by A. M. Salvini had been published (in 1723), and the Greek text had been printed in 1726, Lenglet du Fresnoy, in 1734, denied the existence of the original.

There is but a single manuscript of the work known (in the monastery of the Monte Cassino). The Greek text was first published by Ant. Cocchi, with a Latin translation (London, 1726). This edition contains numerous errors. A still worse edition was published at Lucca (1781), containing, besides the Latin translation of Cocchi, the Italian version of Salvini, and the French version of Jourdan. Xenophon was still more unfortunate in his next editor, Polyzois Kontu (Vienna, 1793), A very excellent and carefully prepared edition was published by Baron de Locella (Vienna, 1796). He procured a fresh collation of the manuscript, and availed himself of the critical remarks of Hemsterhuis, D'Abresch, and D'Orville (Miscel-laneae Observations, vols. iii.—vi.), and the labours of F. J. Bast, who had made preparations for editing the work. Locella also prepared a new translation and a commentary. The Ephesiaca was reprinted by C. W. Mitscherlich, in his Scriptores Erotici Graeci. Another good edition is that of P. Hof-mann Peerlkamp (Harlem, 1818). The most recent edition is that of F. Passow (Lips. 1833,in the Corpus Scriptorum Eroticorum Graecorurri).

There are German translations by G. A. Burger, Hauslin, E. C. Reiske (or rather his wife), in his collections entitled ZurMoral (Dessau and Leipzig, 1782, and Hellas, Leipzig, 1791), and Krabinger, besides one that appeared anonymously. In French there are translations by P. Bauche (Paris, 1736), and J. B. Jourdan (Paris, 1748), A translation of the Ephesiaca also forms the seventh volume of the Bibliotheque des Romans traduits du Grec (Paris, 1797). An anonymous translation, with notes, was published at Paris in 1823. The Italian translation of Salvini has several times been re-published. There is also an English translation by

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