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XENOPHANES.

earlier writers (Philosophic der Griechen, i. p. 134, &c.), either by the erroneous superscription, which is corrected by the testimony of Simplicius, or by a proposition, which is set down as belonging to Zeno, in the third section of the same book (c. 5, p. 979. 22. b, 22), which in reality is different from the doctrine ascribed to Xenophanes (p. 977, b, 3, 1'3, &c. p. 979. 4), or by the dialectic de­velopment, with which it is pretended Xenophanes cannot be accredited, or by the apparent contra­diction that the Deity is represented on the one hand as neither finite nor infinite, on the other (p. 977, b, 1; comp. Simpl. /. c.) as bounded and spherical; on the one hand, as neither moved nor unmoved, on the other (fr. iv.) as freed from mo­tion, nor by the statement of Aristotle (Metaph. A, 5. p. 926, b, 18) that Xenophanes had not decided whether he regarded the One as limited or as unlimited. For to begin with the removal of the last difficulty,—the passage of Aristotle referred to only asserts that from the doctrine of Xenophanes it could not be concluded with cer­tainty whether he had conceived of the Deity as ideal or as material, and to show this, he may have appealed to that antinomical attempt to exclude from the Deity the conditions of rest and motion, limitation, and infinity. To this attempt Xeno­phanes may have been induced by his endeavour (which exhibits itself unmistakeably in the frag­ments of his which have been preserved) to exalt the idea of the Deity above the region of anthro­pomorphic definitions. That he nevertheless found himself driven, in what at least seemed contradic­tion to this, to describe the self-complete Divine essence as shut up in itself and motionless, ex­hibits a wavering, not yet thoroughly formed tone of thought, for which indeed Aristotle finds fault with him (I. c. p. 986, b, 26). We cannot admit again, that no trace of the original epic style is to be found in his conclusions and propositions. Such expressions as Kpareiv ctAAa fj.)) KpaTtiffOcu (p. 977. 27, comp. 31, 38), ovn arpejueTj/ ovti Kivsicr-Bai (ib. 6, 16) show the contrary.

While, however, Xenophanes identified the ex­istent with the Deity, and conceived of it as the basis of phenomena, he could not yet, like his successor Parmenides, who proceeded in a dialectic manner, hold the manifold, in opposition to the one existence, as non-existent (comp. Arist. de Xenoph. fyc. c. 4, p. 977, b., 24); and -certainly his sceptical expres­sions (fr. xiv. xv.), which must have heightened Timon's preference for him, are not to be under­stood as Sextus Empiricus (Pyrrh. Hyp. i. 225) and others understood them, as though he had at­tributed certainty to the conviction of the unity and eternity of the divine essence, but probability only to the assumption respecting the plurality of gods and the world of phenomena. Of the scanty, and in part doubtful, statements respecting his mode of explaining the latter (see Brandis, Hand-buck der Geschichte der Griech. Rom. Phil. vol. i. p. 373, &c.) all that deserves mention here is his endeavour to establish that the surface of the earth had gradually risen out of the sea, by appeal­ing to the shells and petrifactions of marine pro­ducts found on mountains and in quarries (Orig. Philos. c. 4).

Respecting the life, doctrines, and fragments of Xenophanes, compare Fiilleborn's essay ; Xeno-phanes^ in his Beitr'dye (i. p. 59, &c.) ; C. A. Brandis, Comment. Eleat. pars prima (Ahonae,

VOL. IIJ

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XENOPHON.

18l3) ; Xenophane, Fondateur de VEcole d'Elee, by Victor Cousin, in his Nouveaux Fragmens phi- losopkiques, p. 9, &c. j and especially Xenophanis Colophonii Carminum Reliquiae; de Vita ejus et Studiis disseruit, Fragmenta explicavit, Placita illus- travit Simon Karsten, Bruxellis, 1830 (Philoso- phorum Graecorum Veterum Reliqu. vol. i. pars 1). [Ch.A. B.]

XENOPHANTUS (Ee^cH/ros), a Rhodian, sent by the Rhodians in command of a fleet to the Hellespont in b. c. 220. (Polyb. iv. 50.) [C.P.M.]

XENOPHANTUS (He^a^roy), artists. 1. Of Athens, a maker of fictile vases, known by the inscription EENO<f>ANTO2 EIIOIHSEN A0HN, round the neck of a pelice^ found in a tomb at Kertch, the ancient Panticapaeum, in the Crimea, and now in the Museum at St. Petersburg. The whole style of this vase is remarkable. The figures upon it are partly painted red on a black ground, and partly modelled in relief in the yellowish clay of which the vessel is made, and decorated with colours and gilding ; a style characteristic of the Athenian school. (R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Schorn, p. 63, 2d ed.)

2. A statuary, of Thasos, the son of Chares, lived in the reign of Hadrian, and was sent by his fellow-citizens on a mission to Athens, to dedicate a statue of that emperor ; as we learn from an in­scription found at Athens, and published by Spon, Chandler, Osann, and Bockh. (Corp. Inscr. Grace. No. 336 ; Welcker, Kunstblatt, 1827, No. 83 ; R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Schorn, p. 428,2d ed.) [P. S.]

XENOPHILUS (Eei/o>Aos), a Greek officer who was in command of the citadel at Susa, and had charge of the treasures at the time that Anti-gonus marched against the city. He maintained his position long and bravely, but at last went over to Antigonus. (Diod. xix. 18, 48.) [C. P. M.]

XENOTHILUS, sculptor. [straton.]

XENOPHON (Eei/o^co!/), historical. 1. A Corinthian, the son of Thessalus. He was victor at the Olympic games, both in the foot-race and in the pentathlum, in the 79th Olympiad. His family belonged to the stock of the Oligaethidae, and was one of the ruling families of Corinth. Pindar's 13th Olympic Ode celebrates his double victory. (Bockh and Dissen on Pindar, I. c. ; Diod. xi. 70 ; Paus. iv. 24. § 5, ed. Bekker ; Athen. xiii. p. 573.)

2. An Athenian, son of Euripides, was one of the generals to whom Potidaea surrendered (Thuc. ii. 70). Later in the same year (b. c. 429) Xeno-phon and two other generals led an expedition against the Chalcideans and Bottiaeans, but were compelled to retreat into Potidaea. (Thuc. ii. 79.)

3. A native of Aegium, the son of Menephylus, a victor in the pancratium at the Olympic games, mentioned by Pausanias (iv. 3. § 13).

4. A conjuror, who attracted great admiration by his wonderful feats of legerdemain, such as mak­ing fire burst forth spontaneously, Cratisthenes of Phlius was his disciple. (Athen. i. p. 19, e. ; Diog. Laert. ii. 59.)

5. An Achaean, a native of Aegium. He was present, on the side of the Roman general Quinctius, at the conference with king Philip, held at Nicaea, b.c. 198. (Liv. xxxii. 32 ; Polyb. xvii. 1.) He was one of the ambassadors sent to Rome after the conference. (Polyb. xvii. 10.) He had a son named Alcithus. (Polyb. xxviii. 16.) [C. P. M.]

XENOPHON (Heyo^wj'), the Athenian, was the

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