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On this page: Xenckcrates – Xenocrates



that either Plutarch or the, author of the epigram has made a mistake respecting the country of Xenocles, For this reason we must not overlook the possibility, suggested by Jacobs (Animadv. in Anth. Grace, vol. i. pt. i. p. 240), that the river and bridge and mysteries referred to in the epigram may have been m Rhodes and not in Attica.

2. A maker of fictile vases, three or four of whose works, in an antique and beautiful style, are preserved in different collections (Mus. Blacas, pi. xix. pp. 55—60 ; Cab. Durand, No. 65, pp. 24—26 ; Bulletin. Archeol. 1840, p. 128 ; Ger-hard, GriecJi. u. Etrusk. Trinksclial. d. Konigl. Mus. in Berlin, pi. i., and Neuerworbene antik. Denkm'dler, No. 1662, p. 26). There is another vase by the same maker in the Pinacothek at Munich, which is remarkable for not being painted: it has simply the artist's name inscribed upon it, on a yellow band, in the following manner:—


(R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Schorn, pp. 62, 63, 2d ed.) [P. S.]

XENCKCRATES (Sei/oKpdr^), historical. 1. Brother of Theron, tyrant of Agrigentum. He was victor in the chariot race at the Pythian games in b. c. 494. His son Thrasybulus seems to have acted as charioteer on the occasion. Pindar's sixth Pythian ode is addressed to him on the occasion.

2. A Thebari Boeotarch, a contemporary of Epa- minondas. Before the battle of Leuctra, at the request of Epaminondas, he sent to Lebadea for the shield of Aristomenes, which the oracle of Tropho- nius had directed them to procure, and suspended it so as to be visible to the Lacedaemonians, most of whom knew it. (Paus. iv. 32. § 6, comp. ix. 13. § 6.) [C. P. M.]

XENOCRATES (Ee*/o/cpaT7?s), the philoso­pher, was a native of Chalcedon (Cic. Acad. i. 4 ; Athen. xii. p. 530, d.; Stob. Ed. PJiys. i. 3 ; Suid. s. v.; comp. Strabo, xii. p. 566, b. He is called a Carchedonian only through a clerical error in Clem. Alex. Cohort, p. 33, and Strom. v. 4305 &c.). According to the most probable cal­culation (Diog. Laert. iv. 14; comp. Censorin. c. 15 ; Wynpersee, p. 6, &c.) he was born 01. 96. 1 (b. c. 396), and died 01. 116. 3 (b. c. 314) at the age of 82. He is stated to have attached himself first to Aeschines the Socratic (Athen. ix. p. 507, c), and afterwards, while still a youth, to Plato. (Diog. Laert. iv. 6.) His close connection with Plato is indicated (to pass over insignificant or untrustworthy stories in Diog. Laert. &c., see Wyn­persee, p. 13, &c.) by the account that he accom­panied him to Syracuse. (Diog. Laert. iv. 6, &c.) After the death of Plato he betook himself, with Aristotle, to Hermias, tyrant of Atarneus and Assus (Strab. xii. p. 610), and, after his return to Athens, was repeatedly sent on embassies to Philip of Macedonia, and at a later time to Antipater (01.114. 3), during theLamian war. (Diog. Laert. iv. 8, 9, ib. Interp.) The want of quick apprehension and natural grace (Diog. Laert. iv. 6 ; Plut. Conj. Praec. p. 141) he compensated by persevering and thorough-going industry (Diog. Laert. iv. 6, 11; comp. Plut. de recta Rat. and. p. 47, e), pure bene­volence (Diog. Laert. iv. 10 ; Aelian, V. H. xiii. 3), purity of morals (Diog. Laert. iv. 7 ; Plut. Comp. Cimon. c. Lucullo, c. 1 ; Cic. de Off. i. 30 ; Valer. Max. ii. 10), unselfishness (Diog. Laert. iv. 8, &c,; Cic. Tusc. v. 32 j see Menag. on Diog. Laert.), and


a moral earnestness, which compelled esteem and trust even from the Athenians of his own age (Diog. Laert. iv. 7; Cic. ad Att. i. 15 ; Plut. de Adulat. et Amic. discr. p. 71, e). Yet even he experienced the fickleness of popular favour, and being too poor to pay the protection-money (^uerot/ctoi/), is said to have been saved only by the courage of the orator Lycurgus (Plut. Flamin. c. 12, X. Orat. Vitae, 7; but compare Phocion, c. 29), or even to have been bought by Demetrius Phalereus, and then emancipated. (Diog. Laert. iv. 14.) He became president of the Academy even before the death of Speusippus, who was bowed down by sickness, and occupied that post for twenty-five years. {Id. iv. 14, comp. 3.)

If we consider that Aristotle and Theophrastus wrote upon the doctrines of Xenocrates (Diog. (Laert. v. 25, 47), that men like Panaetius and Cicero entertained a high regard for him (Cic. de Fin. iv. 28, Acad. i. 4), we must not dream of being able, even in any degree, to estimate com­pletely and accurately his mind or the philoso­phical direction which it took. How he strove to make himself master of the knowledge of his age, and to establish his own fundamental doctrines or those of Plato, by applying them to particular cases, we see by the titles of his treatises, bare as they have come down to us. With a more comprehen­sive work on Dialectic (ttjs irep\ rb SiaheyevOai Trpayparetas (3i€\ia iff) there were connected se­parate treatises on science, on scientificness (Kepi eiricrr-fj^s a', Trepl eTriarfjp.oo'vyrj^ a'), on divisions (o'iaip4(T€is 77'), on genera and species (Trepl yevwv Kal et'Swz/ a'), on ideas (Trepl t5e<£i>), on the opposite (Trepl rov eVaimou), and others, to which probably the work on mediate thought (ruv Trepl r^v 5/a-volo.vt}, Diog. Laert. iv. 13, 12 ; comp. Cic. Acad. iv. 46) also "belonged. Two works by Xenocrates on Physics are mentioned (Trepl fyvcrews ?'(pvvi-K7)s a,Kpodo~€(as ?'. ib. 11, 13), as are also books upon the gods (Trepl ®eo)i> /3', ib. 13; comp. Cic. de Nat. Deor. i. 13), on the existent (Trepl rov ovros, ib. 12), on the One (Trepl rov eWs, $.), on the indefinite (Trepl rov aopio~rov, ib. 11), on the soul (Trepl tyvxns* ib. 13), on the affections (irepl r£>v iraOwv a', ib. 12), on memory (Trepl fjLvfjfjLijs, $.), &c. In like manner, with the more general ethical treatises on happiness (Trepl evdai/uLovtas &'9 ib. 12), and on virtue (Trepl ctper^s jS7, ib.} there were connected separate books on individual vir­tues, on the voluntary, &c. (ibid.) His four books on royalty he had addressed to Alexander (ffroi-%€?« Trpbs 'AAe^aySpoz/ Trepl /BacnAeias 5'; comp. Plut. adv. Colot. p. 1126, d.). Besides these he had written treatises on the State (Trepl TroAtreias a', Diog. Laert. iv. 12 ; TroAm/cos a', ib. 13), on the power of law (Trepl Svvduecos vo/jlov a', ib. 12), &c., as well as upon geometry, arithmetic, and astrology (ib. 13, 14).

Xenocrates appears to have made a still more definite division between the three departments of philosophy, for the purpose of the scientific treat­ment of them, than Speusippus (Sext. Emp. adv. Math. vii. 16), but at the same time to have aban­doned Plato's heuristic (efyno-ri/dj) method of con­ducting through doubts (ctTropicu), and to have adopted in its stead a mode of bringing forward his doctrines in which they were developed dog­matically (Sext. Emp. Hypoiyp. i. 2 ; comp. Cic. Acad. i. 4; Diog. Laert. iv. 11, 16). Xenocrates also seized more sharply and distinctly the sepa-

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