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rule aedile b. c. 197, praetor with Sicily as his province b. c. 195, and one of the triumvirs for founding a Latin colony in the territory of Thurii in b, c. 193, in which year he was an unsuccessful candidate for the consulship. (Liv. xxxiii. 25, 42, 43, xxxiv. 53, xxxv. 9, 10.)
In b. c. 189 Cn. Manlius Vulso was consul with M. Fulvius Nobilior. He was sent into Asia in order to conclude the peace, which his successor Scipio Asiaticus had made with An-tiochus, and to arrange the affairs of Asia. He arrived at Ephesus in the spring of b. c. 189, and as he was anxious to obtain both glory and booty he resolved to attack the Gallograeci or Galatians in Asia Minor without waiting for any formal instructions from the senate. He carried on the war with success against them, conquered in battle the three chief tribes into which they were divided, called the Tolistoboii, Tectosagi and Trocmi, and compelled them to submit unconditionally to the Roman power. After bringing this war to an end by the middle of the autumn, he led his troops into winter quarters. The Gallograeci had by their many conquests in Asia acquired immense wealth, a large portion of which now fell into the hands of Vulso and his army. (Liv. xxxviii. 12— 27 ; Polyb. xxii. 16—22 j Zonar. ix. 20 ; Appian, Syr. 39, 42.)
Manlius Vulso remained in Asia as proconsul in the following year, b. c. 188, when he formally concluded the treaty with Antiochus and settled the affairs of Asia. In the middle of the summer he crossed over from Asia into Europe, marched through Thrace into Macedonia and Epeirus, and passed the winter at Apollonia. In his march through Thrace his army suffered much from the heat and the attacks of the Thracians, and he lost a considerable part of the booty he had obtained in Asia. He reached Rome in b. c. 187 and demanded a triumph, which he obtained with difficulty in consequence of the opposition of the majority of the ten commissioners, who had been appointed by the senate to conclude the peace with Antiochus in conjunction with Vulso. The triumph of Vulso was a brilliant one, but his campaign in Asia had a pernicious influence upon the morals of his countrymen. He had allowed his army every kind of licence, and his soldiers introduced into the city the luxuries of the East. (Liv. xxxviii. 37—41, 44—50, xxxix. 6, 7; Polyb. xxii. 24—27; Appian, Syr. 42, 43.) In b.c. 184 Vulso was an unsuccessful candidate for the censorship. (Liv. xxxix. 40.)
9. L. manlkjs vulso, the brother of No. 8, was praetor b.c. 197 with Sicily as his province, and served under his brother in Asia in b.c. 189 and 188. (Liv. xxxii. 27, 28, xxxviii. 20 ; Polyb. xxii. 25, 26.)
10. A. manlius cn. p. L. n. vulso, the brother of Nos. 8 aud 9, was consul b. c. 178 with M. Junius Brutus. He received Gaul as his province, and without consulting the senate marched against the Istri, but was unsuccessful in his campaign. At the commencement of the following year he and his colleague Brutus renewed the war, and with better fortune ; but they were prevented from bringing it to a conclusion by the arrival of the new consul C. Claudius Pulcher. (Liv. xli. 1—5, 7, 10, 11.)
XANTHE (Ea*>0Vj), one of the daughters of Oceanus. (Hes. Theog. 356; Virg. Georg. iv. 336.) [L. S.]
XANTHICLES (EcwtfweAifr), an Achaean, was chosen to be one of the generals of the Cyrean Greeks in the place of his countryman Socrates, when the latter, with Clearchus and three other colleagues, had been treacherously arrested by Tis- saphernes, b. c. 401. When the army had reached Cotyora, a court was held to inquire into the con duct of the generals, and Xanthicles was one of those who were fined for a deficiency in the cargoes of the ships, which had brought the soldiers from Trapezus, and of which he was a commissioner. (Xen. Anab. iii. 1. § 47, v. 8. § 1.) [E. E.]
XANTHIPPE, mythological. [pleuron.]
2. A son of De'iphontes. (Paus. ii. 28. § 3.)
3. A hero who had an heroum at Daulia, in Phocis. (Paus. x. 4. § 7.) [L. S.]
XANTHIPPUS (Eai>0i7r7ros). 1. The son of Ariphron and father of Pericles. In b. c. 490, he impeached Miltiades on his return from his unsuccessful expedition against the island of Paros. In b. c. 484 he left Athens together with the other inhabitants on the approach of Xerxes, and in the following year (b. c. 479) he succeeded Themisto-cles as commander of the Athenian fleet. He commanded the Athenians at the decisive battle of Mycale, which was fought on the coast of Ionia on the same day as the battle of Plataea, September, b. c. 470. The Grecian fleet then sailed to the Hellespont ; and when they found that the bridge had been broken down, Leotychides and the Pe-loponnesians returned home forthwith. Xanthippus, however, remained with the Athenian fleet in order to subdue the Chersonese, where several of the Athenians had previously held considerable property. The Persians threw themselves into the town of Sestos, to which Xanthippus laid siege, and which was obliged to surrender early in the following spring (b. c. 478). The Persian governor Artayctes attempted to escape, but was overtaken and abandoned by Xanthippus to the vengeance of the inhabitants of Elaeus, who crucified him. [artayctes.] Xanthippus then returned to Athens with his fleet. (Herod, vi. 131, 136 ; Plut. Them. 10 ; Herod, viii. 131, ix. 114—120.)
2. The elder of the two legitimate sons of Pericles. For an account of him, as well as for the authorities, see paral us, the name of his younger brother.
3. The Lacedaemonian, who commanded the Carthaginians against Regulus, is spoken of in the life of the latter. [regulus, p. 643, b.] Xanthippus appears to have left Carthage a short time after his victory over Regulus.