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breaking out of the first Punic war. (Zonar. viii.
2. Q. mamilius Q. f. M. n. vitulus, brother of the preceding, was consul b. c. 262 with L. Postumius Magellus, the third year of the second Punic war. In conjunction with his colleague Vitulus took Agrigentum. (Polyb. i. 17—20 ; Zonar. viii. 10, who erroneously calls him Q. Ae-milius.)
3. C. mamilius vitulus, was elected max-imus curio in b. c. 209, being the first plebeian who had held that office. He was praetor in b. c. 208 with Sicily as his province, and was one of the ambassadors sent to Philip, king of Macedonia, in b. c. 203. He died in b. c. 174 of the pestilence which visited Rome in that year. (Liv. xxvii. 8, 35, 36, 38, xxx. 26, xli. 26.) ^ VITULUS, Q. VOCO'NIUS, is only mentioned on coins, a specimen of which is given below, from which it appears that he was triumvir of the mint under Julius Caesar, and was quaestor de-signatus at the time the coin was struck. The obverse represents the head of Julius Caesar ; the reverse a vitulus, or calf with q. voconivs vitv-lvs q. design, s. c. (Eckhel, vol. v. p. 344.)
COIN OF Q. VOCONIUS VITULUS.
VIVIANUS, a Roman jurist of uncertain time, who is often cited by Ulpian and Paulus. It ap pears that he referred to the authority of Sabinus, Cassias, and Proculus, and must therefore have been junior to them. (Dig. 29. tit. 7. s. 14.) Pom- ponius appears to have annotated Vivianus, and therefore wrote after him (Dig. ]3. tit. 6. s. 17. § 4). Vivianus may accordingly have lived under Hadrian and Trajan. [G. L.]
ULPIANUS, DOMI'TIUS, derived his^ origin from Tyrus in Phoenicia, as he states himself, " unde mihi origo." (Dig. 50. tit. 1. s. 1.) These words do not prove that he was a native of Tyre, as some have supposed ; they rather prove that he was not, and that his ancestors were of that city. The time of Ulpian's birth is unknown. Some of his juristical works may have been written during the joint reign of Septimius Severus and Antoninus Caracalla (a. d. 211), but the greater part were written during the sole reign of Caracalla, especially the two great works Ad Edictum and the Libri ad Sabinum. He was banished or deprived of his functions under Elagabalus (Lam-prid. Heliog. c. 16), who became emperor a. d. 217 ; but on the accession of Alexander Severus a. d. 222, he became the emperor's chief adviser, who is said to have followed Ulpian's counsel in his administration. (Lamprid. Aleos. Sever. 51.) The emperor once designed to assign a peculiar dress to every office and rank, so that the condition of persons might be known from their attire ; and he also proposed to give slaves a peculiar dress that
they might be recognised among the people, and that slaves and ingenui might not mingle together. Ulpianus and Paulus dissuaded the emperor from this measure by good reasons. (Lamprid. Aleoc. Severus, c. 27.) As a proof of his confidence the emperor never saw any one of his friends alone, except the Praefectus Praetorio and Ulpian ; and whenever he saw the praefect, he invited Ulpian. The emperor conferred on Ulpian. the office of Scriniorum magister, and made him a consiliarius : he also held the office of Praefectus Annonae, as we see from a constitution of Alexander in which he entitles him " Domitius Ulpianus praefectus annonae jurisconsultus amicus meus." (Cod. 8. tit. 38. s. 4.) He also was made Praefectus Praetorio, but it is doubtful whether he first held this post under Elagabalus or under Alexander Severus. The epitomator of Dion says that Ulpian prepared the way for his promotion to the place of Praefectus Praetorio by causing his two predecessors, Fla» vianus and Chrestus, to be put to death. But there is no other evidence than this. (Dion Cass. Ixxx. 2.) Zosirnus (i. 11) says that Ulpian was made a kind of associate with Flavianus and Chrestus in their office, by Mamaea, the mother of Alexander, and that the soldiers hereupon conspired against Ulpian, but their designs were anticipated by Mamaea, who took off their instigators, by whom, we must suppose, he means Flavianus and Chrestus ; and Ulpianus was made sole praefectus praetorio. Ulpian perished by the hands of the soldiers, who forced their way into the palace at night, and killed him in the presence of the emperor and his mother, a. d. 228. As this happened so early in the reign of Alexander, the remark of Lampridius that the emperor chiefly availed himself of the advice of Ulpian in his administration, is only a proof of the carelessness of this writer. His promotion to the office of praefectus praetorio was probably an unpopular measure. A contest is mentioned between the Romans and the praetorian guards, which lasted three days, and was attended with great slaughter. The meagre epitome of Dion only leaves us to guess that Ulpian's promotion may have been connected with it.
A great part of the numerous writings of Ulpian were still extant in the time of Justinian, and a much greater quantity is excerpted from him by the compilers of the Digest than from any other jurist. The number of excerpts from Ulpian is said to be 2462; and many of the excerpts are of great length, and altogether they form about one-third of the whole body of the Digest. It is said that there are more excerpts from his single work Ad Edictum than from all the works of any single jurist. The excerpts from Paulus and Ulpian together make about one half of the Digest. Those of Ulpian compose the third volume of the Palin-genesia of Hommelius.
The following are the works of Ulpian which are mentioned in the Florentine Index, and excerpted in the Digest. The great work Ad Edictum was in 83 libri ; and there were 51 books of the work entitled Libri ad Sabinum [sabinus mas-surius]. He also wrote 20 libri ad Leges Juliam et Papiarn ; 10 de omnibus Tribunal ibus ; 3 de Officio Consulis ; 10 de Officio Proconsulis ; 4 de Appellationibus; 6 Fideicommissorum ; 2 libri Institutionum ; 10 Disputationum ; 6 de Censibus ; a work de Adulteriis ; libri singulares de Officio