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sections in each on Nerva and Hadrian. More­over, it will be remarked, that while the first series terminates with Constantius, the second comes down as low as Arcadius and Honorius. All the MSS. are inscribed with the words Epitome Victor., or Victoria, or Viciorini, and a keen controversy has been.maintained as to the real name of the abbre-viator. It seems clear, at all events, that he cannot be the Aurelius Victor who compiled the De Caesa-ribus: he followed or rather copied the latter very closely, • but consulted other sources, and did not consider himself bound to adhere slavishly to his statements. The Epitome was first printed at Strasburg, 8vo. 1505, and again by Aldus, 8vo. Venet. 1516, at the end of his edition of Sueto­nius.

These four pieces were first published together by Andreas Schottus (8vo. Antw. 1579), who brought to light the Origo and the De Caesaribus from the only MS. of them known to exist, and laboured with great earnestness to prove that the whole were the work of the same writer, and that the writer was Sex. Aurelius Victor. The best edition which has yet appeared, is that of Jo. Arntzenius, Amst. et Traj. Bat. 1733, forming one of the Dutch Variorum Classics, in 4to. An elabo­ rate edition was commenced by Schroeter, of which two volumes only have been published (8vo. Lips. 1829, 1831) comprising the Origo and the De Viris illust) ibus. [ W. R. ]

VICTOR, CLAU'DIUS, the nephew of Civilis, served under his uncle in the revolt of the Batavi in a. d. 69—70, and was sent with Julius Maximus against Vocula. (Tac. Hist, iv. 33.)

VICTOR, FLA'VIUS, the son of Maximus, who ruled as emperor in Spain, Gaul, and Britain, was associated by his father in the government with the title of Augustus. While Maximus marched into Italy to wrest that country from the feeble hands of Valentinian II., Victor was left behind in Gaul. Theodosius himself conquered Maximus ; and shortly afterwards Arbogastes, the general of Theodosius, defeated Victor and put him to death. For further details see maximus, p. 997, and theodosius, p. 1065.


VICTOR, PU'BLIUS, the name prefixed to an enumeration of the principal buildings and monu­ments of ancient Rome, distributed according to the regions of Augustus, which has generally been respected as a work of great authority by Italian local antiquaries, from Nardini downwards. Bun-sen, however, in his Besclireibung der Stadt Rom (vol. i. p. 173, 8vo. Stutt. 1830), after a careful examination into the history of this tract and of the similar production ascribed to sextus rufus, has arrived at the conclusion that, in their present state, they cannot be received as ancient at all, but

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must be regarded as mere pieces of patchwork fabricated not earlier than the fifteenth century. To this opinion Becker in his Handbuch der R'6-miscJten Altertk'umer fully subscribes, and does not



hesitate to characterise them as wilful impostures. (Consult the excellent papers on the Topography of Rome by E. H. Bunbury, published in the Classical Museum, and especially the remarks in No. X. p. 328.)

The De Regionibus Urbis Romae, as this pro­ duction is usually entitled, was first printed by Joannes de Tridino, at Venice, 4to. 1505, in a volume containing also " Beda de, Temporibus ; " it will be found under its best form in the Thesaurus Antiquitatum Romanarum of Graevius, vol. iii. p. 37. fol. Traj. ad Rhen. 1694. [W. R.]

VICTORIA, the personification of victory among the Romans, as Nice was among the Greeks. Dionysius (i. 33) relates that Evander by the command of Minerva dedicated on mount Palatine a temple of Victoria, the daughter of Pallas. On the site of this ancient temple a new one was built by L. Postumius, during the war with the Samnites ; and M. Porcius Cato add-d to it a chapel of Victoria Virgo. In later times there existed three or four sanctuaries of Victoiy at Rome. (Liv. x. 33, xxix. 14, xxxv. 9; P. Victor, Reg. Urb. iv. vii. viii.) [L. S.]

VICTORIA or VICTORPNA, the name given by Trebellius Pollio to the mother of Vic- torinus, and with her he completes his catalogue of the thirty tyrants [see aureolus], two more being thrown in as supernumeraries. According to this historian after the death of her son she was hailed as the mother of camps {Mater Castroruni) ; and coins were struck, bearing her effigy, in brass, silver, and gold. Feeling herself however unequal to the weight of empire, she transferred her power first to Marius, and then to Tetricus, by whom some say that she was slain, while others affirm that she died a natural death. Two medals have been described, one bearing the legend imp. vic­ toria. aug., the other imp. victorina aug. ; but they seem to be unique and are open to sus­ picion. (Trebell. Poll. Trig. Tyrann. iv., vi., xxx., mentions both of the above names ; Aurel. Vict. de Caes. xxxiii. the former only ; comp. Eckhol, vol. vii. p. 454.) " [W.R.]

VICTORIOUS, C. AUFFDIUS, a chosen friend and counsellor of M. Aurelius, was dis­tinguished alike for his high principles and for his eloquence, in which he was excelled by no one among his contemporaries. He was legate in Ger­many, proconsul of Africa, and praefect of the city under Commodus. Although detested by that emperor on account of his virtues, he escaped de­struction by his bold and fearless bearing, died a natural death soon after the ruin of Perennis [Pa-rennis], and was honoured by the erection of a


statue to his memory. He is probably the same person with the C. Aufidius Victorinus who is marked in the Fasti as consul for the second time in a. D. 183, the year in which the first great plot against Commodus was organised and failed. (Dion Cass. Ixxii. 4, 11 ; Gruter, ccclxix. 2 ; Capitolin. M. Aurel 38;. [W. R.]

VICTORIOUS, CORNELIUS, praefect of the praetorians under Antoninus Pius. (Capitolin. Anton. Pius, 8.) [W. R.]

VICTORIOUS, FU'RIUS, praefect of the praetorians under M. Aurelius. (Capitolin. M. Aurel. 14.) [W. R.]

\ ICTORI'NUS, M. PIAVVO'NIUS, who is included by Trebellius Pollio in his list of the thirty tyrants [see aureolus], was the third of

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