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VARUS.

aware of his danger. He resolved to destroy almost all his baggage and to make for the strong fortress of Aliso, which had been erected by Drusus on the Lippe. His first camp was probably in the neighbourhood of Salzuffeln ; and in order to reach Aliso he had to force his way through the pass in the neighbourhood of Detmold. His second day's march was one uninterrupted fight from morning to night, and the contracted extent of the camp, which he pitched at the close of the day, told Germanicus that his numbers had been already greatly reduced. On the morning of the third day Varus continued his march. His difficulties increased more and more. The roads were rendered almost impassable by the rain which descended in torrents: but nevertheless the Romans struggled on, though with continually increasing losses, and at last emerged from the woods into the open country, probably in the neighbourhood of Kreuzburg and Osterholz. Here, however, the main force of the Germans was ready to receive them. With di­minished numbers and exhausted bodies, they were unable to penetrate through the vast hosts which surrounded them on all sides. The fight at length became a slaughter ; the Romans could no longer preserve their ranks ; Vai-us in despair put an end to his own life. Very few of the Romans suc­ceeded in escaping to Aliso. Most perished on the field, but several were taken prisoners. Of these the most distinguished were sacrificed by Arminius to the gods of his country at altars in the forests ; and the remainder were reduced to slavery. The ferocity of the enemy did not even spare the dead ; the corpse of Varus was mangled, and his head cut off and forwarded, as a sign of victonr, to Maroboclims, king of the Marcomanni, who, how­ever, sent it to Augustus. The defeat of Varus was followed by the loss of all the Roman possessions between the Weser and the Rhine, and the latter river again became the boundary of the Roman do­minions. When the news of this defeat reached Rome, the whole city was thrown into conster­nation ; and Augustus, who was both weak and aged, gave way to the most violent grief, tearing his garment and calling upon Varus to give him back his legions. Orders were issued as if the very empire was in danger ; and Tiberius was de­spatched with a veteran army to the Rhine. (Dion Cass. Ivi. 18—25 ; Veil. Pat. ii. 117—120 ; Suet. Aug. 23, Tib. 16, 17 ; Flor. iv. 12 ; Tac. Ann. i. 60, 61, 71.) The history of the defeat of Varus has been treated by a great number of German writers, who have maintained very different views respecting the locality of his defeat. The best ac­count in a brief compass is given by Hockh, Ro-mische Geschiclite^ vol. i. pt. ii. p. 84, foil., and by Ukert, Geographic der Griechen und Romer^ vol. iii. pt. i. p. 124, foil., in the latter of which works a list of all the treatises on the subject is given.

COIN OF P. QU1XT1LIUS VAIIUS.

The following coin was struck by Varus when lie was proconsul of Syria.

VATIA.

14. quintilius varus, probably the son of No. 13, was accused by Domitius Afer in a. d. 27. (Tac. Hist. iv. 66.) lie is called by Tacitus the propinquus of the emperor Tiberius ; and we learn from Seneca, who had heard Varus declaiming, that he was the son-in-law of Germanicus. (Senec. Controv. 4.) Varus may also have been called the propinquus of Tiberius, because his mother Claudia Pulchra was the sobrina of Agrippina. (Tac. Ann. iv. 52, 66.)

VARUS, C. VFBIUS, whose name occurs only on coins, a specimen of which is annexed. On the obverse is the head of M. Antonius, and on the reverse Venus holding a figure of Victory in one hand and a cornucopia in the other. This Varus must have been triumvir of the mint or have held some magistracy after the death of Julius Caesar and the commencement of the triumvirate, as is shown by the beard of M. Antonius, which he allowed to grow at the beginning of the trium­virate. (Eckhel, vol. v. p. 342.) The name of Vibius Varus occurs in the reign of Hadrian : there was a C. Vibius Juventius Varus, who wai consul in a. d. 134.

COIN OF C. VIBIUS VARUS.

VASIUS, T. one of the conspirators against Q. Cassius Longinus, propraetor of Further Spain, in b. c. 48. (Hirt. B. Aleoc. 42.) [longinus, No. 15.]

VATIA, the name of a family of the Servilia Gens.

1. P. servilius C. f. M. n. vatia, surnamed isauricus, was the grandson of Q. Metellus Ma-cedonicus. (Cic. pro Dom. 47.) He is first men­tioned in b.c. 100, where he took up arms with the other Roman nobles against Saturninus. (Cic. pro C. Rabir. perd. 7«) Ho was raised to the con­sulship by Sulla in b. c. 79, along with A p. Clau­dius Pulcher, and in the following year (b. c. 78) was sent as proconsul to Cilicia, with a powerful fleet and army, in order to clear the seas of the pirates, whose ravages now spread far and wide. lie was a man of integrity, resolution, and energy, and carried on the war with great ability and success. At first he sailed against the pirates, and defeated them in a naval engagement off the coast of Cilicia. The pirates then abandoned the sea and took re­fuge in their strongholds among the mountains which skirt the southern coast of Asia Minor. Servilius proceeded to attack their fortresses, which were defended with the greatest obstinacy and courage. We have only fragmentary accounts of this war, which occupied Servilius about three years ; but it appears that the Romans experienced all the sufferings and dangers to which regular troops are generally exposed in a warfare among mountains defended by brave and hardy inhabit­ants. Servilius, after landing, first took Olympus, a town of Lycia, situated on a mountain of the same name, which was resolutely defended by a robber chief, called Zenicetus, who perished with his followers in the flames of the place. He next

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