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government of Africa, arrived to take the command of the province ; but Varus would not even allow him to land, and compelled him to sail away. Shortly afterwards C. Curio crossed over from Sicily to Africa with two legions in order to gain Africa for Caesar. Varus attacked Curio in the neighbourhood of Utica, but was defeated with considerable loss, and with difficulty maintained his ground under the walls of that city. He was, however, soon relieved by the Numidian king Juba, who hastened to his support at the head of a powerful army. Curio was now in his turn de­feated by Juba. Curio himself fell in the battle with almost all his infantry ; and the cavalry, which escaped the slaughter and fled to Varus at Utica, were all put to death by Juba, notwith­standing the remonstrances of the Roman general. This victory secured Africa for the Pompeian party. Accordingly, the most distinguished leaders of the party fled thither after their defeat at Pharsalia in the following year (b. c. 48) ; and Varus was now obliged to resign the supreme command to Scipio, which he did with extreme reluctance. In the war which followed Varus was entrusted with the command of the fleet, and burnt several of Caesar's ships at Adrumetum. After the hopes of the Pompeian party in Spain had been ruined by the defeat of Scipio at Thapsus, Varus sailed away to Cn. Pompey in Spain. He was defeated off Carteia in a naval battle by C. Didius, one of Caesar's commanders, and he afterwards joined the army on shore. He fell at the battle of Munda, and his head, together with that of Labienus, was carried to Caesar. (Cic. ad Att. viii. 13, b, 15, 20 ; Caes. B. C. i. 12, 13, 31; Cic. pro Ligar. I; Caes. B. C. ii. 23—44 ; Dion Cass. xli. 41, 42 ; Appian, B. C. ii. 44—46 ; Lucan, iv. 713, foil. ; Dion Cass. xlii. 57; Hirt. B. Afr. 62, 63 ; Dion Cass. xliii. 30, 31 ; Appian, B. C. ii. 105.)

2. Q. atius varus, commander of the cavalry under C. Fabius, one of Caesar's legates in Gaul, is praised as a man " singularis et animi et pru-dentiae." (Hirt. B. G. viii. 28.) He is probably the same as the Q. Varus, who commanded the cavalry under Domitius, one of Caesar's generals in Greece in the war with Pompey. (Caes. B. C. iii. 37.) It is supposed by many modern writers that he is the same person as the Varus, to whom Virgil dedicated his sixth eclogue, and whose praises he also celebrates in the ninth (ix. 27), from which poems we learn that Varus had obtained renown in war. It is also believed that he is the same as the Varus, who is said to have studied the Epi­curean philosophy along with Virgil under Syro, a philosopher mentioned by Cicero (Serv. ad Virg. Ed. vi. 13; Phocas, Vita Virg. 65 ; Donatus, Vita Virg. 79 ; respecting Syro, see Cic. ad Fain. vi. 11, de Fin. ii. 35) ; but others think that this Varus is the same as the L. Varus, the Epicurean phi­losopher and friend of Caesar, mentioned by Quin-tilian (vi. 3. § 78). (Comp. Estre, Horatiana Prosopograplieia, pp. 118, 204, foil., Amstelod. 1846.)

VARUS, C. CA'SSIUS LONGINUS. [LoN-ginus, No. 10.]

VARUS, C. LICI'NIUS, P. p. P. n. (Fasti Capit.), was consul b. c. 236 with P. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus. Varus and his colleague marched into northern Italy in order to oppose the Transalpine Gauls, who had crossed the Alps ; and when this danger was averted by the quarrels of


the Gauls amongst themselves, Varus was ordered to reduce the Corsicans to subjection. The consul sent to the island his legate M. Claudius Glicia, intending to follow shortly afterwards. Glicia concluded a peace with the Corsicans on his own authority ; but Varus, on his arrival in the island, refused to acknowledge it, and made war upon the Corsicans till he compelled them to surrender at discretion. (Zonar. viii. 18, p. 400 ; Liv. Epit. 50 ; see glicia.) Probably this Licinius is the same as the C. Licinius, who was sent to Carthage in b. 218 with four other ambassadors, all of whom were advanced in life. (Liv. xxi. 18.)

VARUS, PLA'NCIUS, a man of praetorian rank, denounced Dolabella on the accession of Vitellius, although he had been one of Dolabella's most intimate friends. (Tac. Hist. ii. 63.) [dola­bella, No. 11.]

VARUS, POMPEIUS, a friend of Horace, who had fought with the poet at the battle of Philippi, and who appears to have been afterwards proscribed, and to have fled to Sex. Pompeius in Sicily. One of Horace's odes (ii. 7) is addressed to this Pompeius, in which the poet congratulates him upon his unexpected return to his native land. Many commentators accordingly suppose this ode to have been written as early as b. c. 39, when the triumvirs made peace with Sex. Pompeius, and allowed those who had been proscribed to return to Rome ; but others maintain, with more proba­bility, that it was not composed till after the battle of Actium in b. c. 31, and that Varus was one of those who had espoused the cause of Antonius, and was then pardoned by Octavianus. (Comp. Estre, Horatiana ProsopograpJicia, p. 474, foil., Amstelod. 1846.)

VARUS, QUINTI'LIUS. 1. sex. quin-tilius sex. P.P. n. varus,consul b. c. 453 with P. Curiatius Fistus Trigeminus, died while con­sul of the pestilence which devastated Rome in this year. (Fasti Capit. ; Liv. ii. 32 ; Dionys. x. 53.)

2. M. quintilius L. f. L. n. varus, one of the consular tribunes in b. c. 403. (Fasti Capit.; Liv. v. 1.)

3. cn. quintilius varus, dictator b.c. 331. davifigendi causa. (Liv. viii. 18.)

4. P. quintilius varus, praetor b. c. 203, with Ariminum as his province. In conjunction with the proconsul M. Cornelius he defeated Mago, the brother of Hannibal, in the territory of the Insubrian Gauls. [Vol. II. p. 904, a.] (Liv. xxix. 38, xxx. 1, 18.)

5. M. quintilius varus, the son of No. 4, distinguished himself in the battle in which his father defeated Mago. (Liv. xxx. 18.)

6. T. quintilius varus, served in Spain in b. c. 185, as legatus of the praetor Calpurnius Piso. (Liv. xxxix. 31, 38.)

7. P. quintilius varus, flamen Martialis, died in b. c. 169. (Liv. xliv. 18.)

8. P. quintilius varus, praetor b. c. 167. (Liv. xlv. 44.)

9. P. (quintilius) varus, is mentioned by Cicero in his oration for Quintius in b. c. 81, and again in his oration for Cluentius as one of the witnesses in the trial of Scamander. (Cic. pro Quint. 17, pro Cluent. 19.)

10. sex. quintilius varus, praetor b. c. 57, was in favour of Cicero's recall from banishment. (Cic. post Red. in Sen. 9.)

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