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slid contradictory are the records of this period, that it is impossible to arrange the events in regular order, or to speak with any certainty of the details. We should have imagined that little difficulty could have been found in fixing the pre­cise date of the capture and sack of Antioch, the destruction of its edifices, and the massacre of its population, a catastrophe which must have caused a profound sensation throughout the civilised world, yet we cannot decide whether these things hap­pened during the reign of Gallus, of Valerian, or of Gallienus. In like manner it is hard to decide in what year Valerian was made prisoner, although the weight of evidence is in favour of A. d. 260. (Trebell. Poll. Frag. Vit. Valerian.; Aurel. Vict. de Cues, xxxii., Epit. xxxii. ; Eutrop. ix. 6 ; Amm. Marc, xxiii. 5 ; Zosim. i. 27, foil. iii. 32 ; Zonar. xii. 23 ; Eckhel, vol. vii. p. 387.) [W. R.]


VALERIANUS JUNIOR,a son of the em­peror Valerianus, but not by the same mother as Gallienus. He was remarkable for the beauty of his person, the modesty of his address, the high cultivation of his mind, and the purity of his morals in which he exhibited a marked contrast to his dissolute brother, along with whom he perished at Milan in a. d. 268. [gallienus.] Trebellius Pollio affirms that he received the title of Caesar from his father, and of Augustus from Gallienus, but this assertion is not supported by the Fasti nor by any other historical evidence, while Eckhel has adduced many weighty arguments to prove that he never could have enjoyed either of these appellations, and that all the coins ascribed to him belong in reality to his nephew Saloninus. (Trebell. Poll. Valerian, jun. ; Eutrop. ix. 8 ; Zonar. xii. 24, according to whom young Valerianus was slain not at Milan, but at Rome, along with the son of Gallienus, after the death of the latter. See also Eckhel, vc4. vii. pp. 432, 436, and the dissertation of Brequigny in the Memoires de V Academic de Sciences et Belles Lettres, vol. xxxii. p. 274.) [W.R.]

VALERIANUS, CORNELIUS. [saloni­ nus.] [W. R.]

VALERIANUS, with the title Episcopus Cemeliensis, is the name attached in a single MS. to a discourse De Bono Disciplinae, frequently printed among the works of St. Augustine, but no author bearing this designation has been com­memorated by Gennadius, by Isidoras, nor by any other compiler of ecclesiastical biographies. Ceme-lium was a village in the neighbourhood of Nice, the episcopate of which was,,by a decree of Pope Leo the Great, conjoined with that of Nice, so that after that period it did not form an independent diocese — a fact which determines one limit with regard to the age of Valerianus. He is believed to be identical with the Valerianus to whom, in common with other bishops of southern Gaul, a letter was addressed by Leo touching the ordina-

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tion of the bishop of Vaison (Episcopus Vasensis\ and he is further believed to be the Valerianus who assisted at the councils of Ries (a. d. 439) and Aries (a. d. 455), but these and other sup­positions rest upon no basis more stable than simple conjecture.

The Sermo de Bono Disciplinae was first pub­ lished as the work of. Valerianus by Melchior Goldastus, 8vo. Gen. 1601, and ten years after­ wards Sirmond discovered in a MS. belonging to the monastery of Corvey on the Weser nineteen discourses, together with an Epistola ad Monac/ios de Virtutibus et Ordine Doctrinae Apostolicae, pur­ porting to be the production of Valerianus Episco­ pus. Although the codex in question did not con­ tain the homily De Bono Disciplinae, nor indicate the site of the bishopric of this Valerianus, Sir­ mond concluded from the style that the whole of these pieces must unquestionably be ascribed to Valerianus Cemeliensis, and accordingly printed an octavo volume at Paris in 1612 with the title Sancti Valeriani Episcopi Cemeliensis Homiliae XX. Item Epistola ad Monachos de Virtutibus et Ordine Doctrinae Apostolicae. Omnia primum praeter um~ cam Homiliam post annos plus minus mille ducentos in lucem edita a Jacobo Sirmondo Societatis Jesu Presbytero anno M.DCXII. These tracts will be found also in the collected works of Sirmond, vol. i. p. 604. fol. Paris, 1696, in the Bibliotheca Patrum Maxima, vol. viii. p. 4.98, fol. Lugd. 1677, and under their best form in the Bibliotheca Patrum of Galland, vol. x. p. 123, fol. Venet. 1774. (Schoene- mann, Biblioth. Patrum Lat. vol. ii. § 38.) [W. R.] VALERIA'NUS PAETUS, one of the many victims of the suspicious cruelty of Elagabalus. (Dion Cass. Ixxix. 4.) [ W. R.]

VALERIANUS, C. PLI'NIUS, a physician, whose date is unknown, who died at the early age of twenty-two, and whose name is preserved in a Latin inscription found at Como. (Gruter, Inscr. i. 635.) To him is attributed (but apparently with­out any very good reason) a Latin medical work entitled " Medicinae Plinianae Libri Quinque" which is supposed to have been written about the fourth century after Christ. It is a book on do­mestic medicine, compiled from Pliny, Dioscorides, Galen, Alexander Trallianus, and others, and is not of much value. The first three books treat of different diseases, beginning with the head and descending to the feet, and contain an account of a great number of medicines, taken partly from Pliny and partly from later writers. The fourth book treats of the properties of plants, and is in a great measure taken from Galen ; and the fifth, which is almost entirely taken from Alexander Trallianus, treats of the diet suitable to different diseases. The work was first published at Rome 1509, fol., edited by Th. Pighinuccius. There is (according to Haller) a much more accurate edi­tion, published Bonon. 1516, fol. It is also in­serted in Alban Thorer's (Torinus) Collection, Basil. 1528, fol., and in the Aldine Collection of " Medici Antiqui," Venet. 1547, fol. There is a learned dissertation by J. G. Giinz (which the Writer has never seen), entitled " De Auctore Operis de Re Medica, vulgo Plinio Valeriano ad-scripti," Lips. 1736, 4to, in which the author tries to prove that the work in question was written by Siburius. .(See Fabricius, Bibl. Lat.; Haller, BibL Med. Pract.; Choulant, Handb.derBucherkundefur die Aeltere Medicin ; Penny OycJop.) [W. A.

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