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gave him hostages. Valentinian spent the winter at Treves, as appears from a constitution dated the 8th of November.

Tillemont remarks, " that Theodosius, who spent about three years in Italy, after the defeat of Maximus, had by his wise advice effaced from the mind of the youthful emperor all the bad impres­sions which his mother Justina had fixed in him against the faith and St. Ambrose, and forming himself after the example of Theodosius, he had a fervent devotion towards God, and loved St. Am­brose with such affection, that he cherished him as miich as he had formerly persecuted him." In a. d. 391, Q. Aurelius Symmachus, who was consul with Tatianus, was the head of a deputation from the Roman senate to Valentinian, the object of which was to ask of the emperor the restoration of the privileges which Gratian had taken from the temples of the idols. The emperor however posi­tively refused to grant the petition.

At this time, the barbarians were in motion, on the side of the Illyrian Alps, and it was appre­hended that they might disturb Italy. Valentinian set out for Italy, with the intention of going to Milan. He was at Vienna (Vienne), when he sent for Ambrosius to baptize him before he entered Italy, for he was yet only a catechumen. There were many bishops in France, but Valentinian wished to receive this Christian rite at the hands of Ambrose. " After having written to Ambrose, he passed the two following days in such inquietude and such impatience to see the saint, that having despatched a courier in the evening, he asked on the morning of the third day, which was the last of his life, if the courier had not returned, and if the saint was not coming." (Tillemont.)

Arbogast, a Frank by origin, a man probably of violent temper, though on this point there is a dif­ference in the testimony, but a rude soldier and a man of courage and address, was aiming at govern­ing Valentinian, who was still a youth. Gratian employed Arbogast and sent him in a. d. 381 under Bauton to assist Theodosius who was pressed by the Goths. After the death of Bauton, Arbogast assumed the command of the troops without, it is said, waiting for the orders of Valentinian. During the usurpation of Maximus, Arbogast was faithful to his master, and contributed greatly to the over­throw of Maximus. Presuming however on his abilities, his influence with the army, and the youth of Valentinian, Arbogast kept the emperor in a kind of tutelage, of which Valentinian complained to Theodosius. At last the emperor mustered courage to give into the hands of Arbogast a written order by which he was deprived of his military rank ; but the proud soldier told him to his face, that he had not given him his office and that it was not in his power to take it away. With these words he* tore the writing, threw it on the ground, and quitted the emperor's presence.

There are different accounts of the death of Valentinian. The most probable is, that he was strangled by order of Arbogast. His body was taken to Milan for interment by the side of his father, and Ambrose pronounced the funeral oration. Valentinian II. died on the 15th of May, being only a few months above twenty years of age. Justa and Grata, the two sisters of Valentinian, deplored with sincere affection the untimely end of their brother. " Ambrose, who was so well instructed in the doctrine of the church, does not hesitate in his



funeral oration to assure us of the salvation of a prince, who had not received the sacrament of salvation, but had asked for it, and was disposed to receive it." (Tillemont.) On this point, see Gibbon, c. 27. note 108.

Justina, the mother of Valentinian, was dead ; she had not long survived the restoration of her son to his throne, and her influence expired before she died. Justa and Grata, the sisters of the emperor, remained unmarried ; and Galla, the wife of Theo­dosius, who deeply lamented her brother's death, died in a. d. 394, in childbed, when Theodosius was leaving Constantinople to avenge the death of Valentinian.

The reign of Valentinian is of little importance ; and what concerns the Roman legislation of this period belongs to the history of Theodosius I.

(Gibbon, Decline and Fall, &c. ; Tillemont, Histoire des Empereurs, v., where the authorities are collected.) [G.L.]


VALENTINIANUS III., Roman emperor A. d. 425—455. Honorius, emperor of the West, died in August, a. d. 423, and Joannes, the Pri-micerius, or first of the secretaries, assumed the imperial dignity at Rome. Joannes sent to the emperor Theodosius II. to ask for his consent to his usurpation ; but the emperor's answer was not favourable, and Joannes sent the general Aetius to the Huns, to seek their help. Joannes, wishing to secure the support of this able commander, gave him the rank of Curopalates, as the mayor of the palace was afterwards called. Theodosius (a. d. 424) sent Ardaburius, and his son Aspar with a powerful army against the usurper. They were accompanied by Placidia, and her young son Valentinian, who, pursuant to the orders of Theodosius, was invested with the title of Caesar at Thessalonica by Helion, the Magister Officiorum, and the emperor also betrothed to him his daughter Eudocia, who was born A. d. 422. Valentinian was now between five and six years of age. Valentinian was the son of Constantius III. by Placidia, the sister of Hono­rius, and the daughter of Theodosius I.

In a. d. 425, Theodosius II. was consul for the eleventh time, with Valentinianus Caesar for his colleague. Aspar, accompanied by Valentinian and Placidia, arrived in Italy before the usurper expected them, and took possession of Aquileia. Ardaburius came with a fleet, but a storm having arisen in the Hadriatic, he was separated from his fleet, and with two galleys fell into the hands of the soldiers of Joannes, who took him to the usurper at Ravenna. Joannes treated the general kindly, in the hope of securing him as a friend, but Ardaburius made use of his opportunity to gain over the officers of Joannes, and sent his son Aspar in­structions to approach Ravenna. Aspar arrived with his cavalry, and being conducted across the marshes by a shepherd, or, as Socrates says, by an angel, found the gates of Ravenna open, and took

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