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VALENTINIANUS.

enactments. His many great qualities entitle him to a place among the most distinguished of the illustrious Romans. [G. L.]

1210

VALENTINIANUS.

Valentinian passed the winter of A. p. 373 at Milan, but he was again at Treves in May and June of the following year a. d. 374. He was upon the Rhine, probably in the neighbourhood of Bale, when he received intelligence of the Quadi invading Illyricum: the cause was this. As the emperor was anxious to protect the frontiers, he or­dered some forts to be built north of the Danube, in the country of the Quadi. The Quadi complained of this encroachment to Equitius, master-general of Illyricum, who consented to suspend the works till the emperor had signified his pleasure. But Marcellinus, the son of Maximinus, was made dux of Valeria, a province of Illyricum, by his father's interest, and he continued the fortifications with­out troubling himself about the Quadi. The king of the Quadi, Gabinius, came to remonstrate with Marcellinus, who received him civilly and asked him to eat; but as the king was retiring after the entertainment, the Roman treacherously caused him to be assassinated. The Quadi, joined by the Sarmatians, crossed the river into the Roman pro­vince, which was destitute of troops, and destroyed the grain which was ready for the harvest. Probus, Praefectus Praetorio, though much alarmed, pre­pared to defend Sirmium; but the barbarians did not disturb him, and preferred running after Equitius to whom they attributed the death of their king. The barbarians destroyed two legions, and the province would have been lost, but for the vigour and courage of a young man, who was after­wards the emperor Theodosius.

Valentinian heard of this incursion of the Quadi at his royal residence of Treves, but he deferred his campaign against the Quadi to the following year, and in the mean time he employed himself in securing the friendship of Macriamis, king of the Allemanni, with whom he had an interview near Mainz. Macrianus accepted the terms which the Roman emperor came to offer, and became the ally, or at least not the enemy of Valentinian. The emperor spent this, his last winter at Treves, which he did not quit till the month of April, a. d. 375, to march towards Illyricum. He took with him his wife Justina and his second son Valen­tinian. Gratian was left at Treves.

The emperor fixed his head-quarters at Car-nun turn, which was probably on the Danube, and below the site of Vienna. His first care was to inquire into the conduct of Probus, the praefect, who was charged with oppressing the people ; but Valentinian did not live long enough to come to any decision about Probus. After preparing for the campaign the emperor crossed the Danube, but his operations were not very decisive, and at the approach of winter he re-crossed the river, and fixed himself at Bregetio, probably near Pres-burg. While giving an audience to the deputies of the Quadi, and speaking with great heat, he fell down in a fit and expired suddenly on the 17th of November, after a reign of twelve years, all but a hundred days. His body was embalmed and carried to Constantinople to be interred.

Gibbon's sketch of the reign of Valentinian and Valens (c. 25) has great merit: it is rapid, exact and instructive Tillemont (Histoire des Empe-reurs, v.) is painfully minute as usual ; but his authorities are always valuable, and his judgment, when not biassed by his peculiar way of thinking, is generally sound. The reign of Valentinian is worth a careful study in his extant legislative

COIN OF VALENTINIANUS I.

VALENTINIANUS II., Roman emperor A. d. 375—392, a son of Valentinianus I., was with his mother Justina, about one hundred miles from the camp of Bregetio, when his father died there, a. D. 375. His brother Gratianus was at Treves. Valentinian and his mother were sum­moned to Bregetio, when the army proclaimed Valentinian, Augustus, six days after his father's death. He was then only four or five years of age ; and Gratian was only about seventeen. Gratian assented to the choice of the army, and a division of the West was made between the two brothers. Valentinian had Italy, Illyricum and Africa. Gra­tian had the Gauls, Spain and Britain. This division, however, if it actually took place, was merely nominal, and Gratian as long as he lived was actually emperor of the West. One reason for supposing that Gratian really retained all the im­perial power is the fact, that after the death of Valens, and in a. d. 37.9, Gratian ceded a part of Illyricum to Theodosius I., whom he declared em­peror of the East. This seems to show at least that the division of the empire of the West between Gratian and Valentinian was not completed at the time when Theodosius received a part of Illyricum.

In a. d. 383, Gratian was murdered at Lyon. [gratianus; theodosius I.] Milan was"the chief residence of Valentinian II. from the time of his father's death, and he was in this city during a. D. 384. He made Symmachus prefect of Rome, probably about the close of a. d. 383. Valentinian was still at Milan in the first half of A. d. 386, and afterwards at Aquileia. His mother Justina, who acted in his name, and was an Arian, employed herself in persecuting the Catholics during this and the following year. In a. d. 386, Valen­tinian addressed a letter to Sallustius, the prefect of Rome, in which he ordered him to rebuild the church of St. Paul, near Rome, on the road to Ostia. The church was rebuilt, but apparently somewhat later than the time of this order.

Maximus, who had usurped the throne of Gratian, left Valentinian a precarious authority out of fear for Theodosius I.: but in August, a. d. 387, he suddenly crossed the Alps, and advanced towards Milan, the usual residence of Valentinian. The emperor and his mother fled to the Hadriatic, where they took shipping and arrived at Thessalonica. In A. d. 388, Theodosius defeated Maximus, and restored Valentinian to his authority as emperor of the West. [theodosius L] In a. d. 389, Valen­tinian went into Gaul to conduct operations against the Franks on the Rhine. Arbogast was at that time commander of the Roman forces in Gaul. Nothing further is recorded of this campaign, ex­cept that Valentinian had a conference with Mar-j comir and Sunnon, the chiefs of the Franks, who

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