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were celebrating. The Romans retaliated by gam­ing over an Allemann to assassinate his king Vithicabus, a man who in a feeble body possessed a great spirit, and had caused the Romans no small trouble. While the emperor was on his road from Amiens to Treves on the Mosel, he heard of the ravages which the Picts and other barbarians were committing in Britain. The conduct of this war was finally entrusted to Theodosius, the father of the first emperor Theodosius. [theodosius.]

To the year a. d. 368 probably belongs a con­stitution of Valentinian addressed to Olybrius, then praefect of Rome (Cod. Theod. 2. tit. 10. s. 2 ; Cod. Just. 2. tit. 6. s. 6), for the regulation of the conduct of advocates, who were forbidden to use abusive language, or to say anything which might injure the reputation of the party to whom they were opposed, unless it was necessary to maintain the case of their client. The constitution contains other regulations. By another constitution he or­dered that there should be a physician appointed for each of the fourteen regions of Rome, to look after the health of the poor. In the autumn of this year Valentinian left Treves for an expedition against the Allemanni, whom he drove with great loss from a mountain where they had fortified themselves. This place called Solicinium has been conjectured to be Sulz, near the source of the Necker. The emperor returned with his son to Treves, which he entered in a kind of triumph.

In a. d. 369 Valentinian was occupied with building forts on the left bank of the Rhine, from its mouth to the country of the Rhaeti ; and he also constructed some forts on the other side of the river. Mannheim, at the junction of the Necker and the Rhine, is supposed to be one of these positions. His residence was chiefly at Treves during this year, but he made excursions to various places on the Rhine. A story recorded in the Alexandrine Chronicle, and also in Zonaras, of the emperor's severity seems hardly credible. An eunuch named Rhodanus, an attendant on Valen­tinian, had been convicted before Sallustius of de­frauding a widow, and he was ordered to make restitution. Instead of doing this he appealed from the judgment, and the widow was advised to pre­sent her petition to Valentinian when he was seated in the Circus. The eunuch was near his master, when the widow presented her petition, and the emperor immediately ordered the eunuch to be seized, to be carried round the Circus while proclamation of his crime was made, and then to be burnt alive in the presence of the spectators.

In a. d. 370 Valentinian was still at Treves, or near it, as appears from the constitutions promul­gated in this year. The Saxons now broke loose on the Roman territory, where they plundered all before them ; but they were alarmed by the ap­pearance of Severus, commander of the infantry (peditum magister), who made peace with them on condition of their retiring. But the Romans treacherously laid an ambuscade, and destroyed the Saxons on their march back, at a place called Deuso, according to Hieronymus, which may be Deutz, opposite to Cologne. Ammianus (xxviii. 5) considered this treachery justifiable under the circumstances. A constitution of this year ad­dressed to Damasus, bishop of Rome (Cod. Theod. 16. tit 2. s. 20), was intended to check the greediness of the clergy. It is commented on by Gibbon with his usual relish for scandal against



the clergy, against whom, however, we liave the evidence of the imperial constitution, and that of Hieronymus. Damasus, the bishop of Rome, was himself a man of dubious character, and the vir­tuous Praetextatus, a pagan, told him that he would turn Christian himself if he could secure the see of Rome, " a reproach," observes Gibbon, " in the form of a jest."

Ammianus (xxviii. 1) gives an account of the cruelties exercised at Rome by Maximinus, who hold the office of the Vicaria Praefectura, against persons who were accused of magical arts. Maxi­minus put many persons to the torture, and even to death, upon the charge of using magic. Maxi­minus was punished by Gratian, the successor of Valentinian, for all his misdeeds. Magic, or whatever is meant by the term, was a great abomination in the eyes of Valentinian: he per­mitted all the arts of the Roman araspices to be practised, and every other ceremonial of the ancient religion, provided no magic was practised. He even maintained the Pontifices in the provinces in all their privileges, and allowed them the same rank as Comites. This was going even beyond toleration, and further than a wise policy can justify. He relieved from all civil duties such ecclesiastics as devoted all their time to the service of the church, and had entered the clerical body before the commencement of his reign ; but as to others, they were liable to discharge all civil duties like any layman. These and other con­stitutions of the first half of a. d. 371 were pro­mulgated at Trevesi, the favourite residence of Valentinian, which he left for a short time to con­duct operations against the Germans in the neigh­bourhood of Mainz. He was again at Treves in December, and he appears to have passed the year a. d. 372 there or in the neighbourhood. The emperor did nothing this year that is recorded, ex­cept to promulgate a constitution against the Mani-chaeans, who were always treated with great severity.

The year A. d. 373 was the fourth joint consul­ship of the two Augusti, Valentinian and Valens, and Valentinian spent a great part of this year in Italy. Maximinus was made Praefectus (of Gaul, as Tillemont shows), and this brought about the ruin of Remigius, once Magister Oificiorum, who had been a partnc r of Comes Romanus in his mal­administration. Remigius had resigned his office and retired to the pleasant neighbourhood of his native Mainz to cultivate the land. Maximinus, who was somewhere near, which is confirmatory of Tillemont's conjecture that he was in this year prefect of Gaul, put to the torture one Caesarius, who had served under Remigius, in order that he might discover what Remigius had received from Romanus. Remigius, being informed of these pro­ceedings against him, hanged himself (Amm. Marc, xxx, 2). Palladius, who had deceived his master in the affair of Comes Romanus, was also arrested by order of Valentinian ; and he too pronounced his own sentence, and executed it by hanging him­self. Romanus, the chief criminal, was put in pri­son by Theodosius, when he was sent against Firmus [theodosius], and proof was found of his knavery in the affair of Leptis. The historian, however, has not the gratification of finding any evidence of the punishment of Romanus, either under the reign of Valentinian or that of his suc­cessor.

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