The Ancient Library

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Theodosiolus or Theodosius, a grandee of Spain, and it seems that he must mean Theodosius, the father of the emperor Theodosius, who was exe­cuted at Carthage, A. d. 37o\ However, many persons were executed who had dealt in magic ; Maxim us, once the teacher of the emperor Julian, Simonides, Hilarius and others. Books of magic were diligently" sought after, and all that could be found were burnt. Chrysostorn, then a young man, who by chance found a book of magic, expected and feared to share the fate of those who had dealt in this wicked art.

The same year in which Gabinius in the West fell a victim to Roman treachery (a. d. 374), Para perished by the same shameful means. Para, it appears, was established on. the throne of Armenia, but Valens was for some reason dissatisfied with him, and sent for him to Tarsus under some pre­text, leaving him to wait there, until Para, sus­pecting that it was intended to keep him prisoner, made his escape to Armenia. Valens commissioned Comes Trajanus, the commander of the Roman forces in Armenia, to put him to death, and Tra­janus executed the order by inviting Para to a banquet and assassinating him.

Negotiations for peace were still going on with Sapor (a. D. 375), but they resulted in nothing. The emperor spent this year at Antioch, taking little care of the administration, and allowing his ministers to enrich themselves by unjust means. Ammianus (xxx. 4) has a chapter on these mat­ters. The pretext for these odious inquisitions was the vague charge of treason against the emperor.

The events of A. d. 376 .were unimportant. Valens was consul for the fifth time with Valen-tinianus, junior, who with his elder brother Gra-tianus had succeeded their father Valentinianus I., who died at the close of a. d. 375. Valens was preparing for war against the Persians, and he as­sembled a great force, but there is no record of what was the result of all this preparation. Sapor made conquests in Iberia and Armenia, which Valens could not prevent. Valens sent Victor to Persia to come to terms with the Persian king, and peace was made on terms, as it appears, not advantageous to the Romans.

At this time the Romans became acquainted with the name of the Huns. The Huns, after at­tacking various tribes and the Alans, who in­habited the banks of the Tanais, fell upon the Goths called Greuthingi or Eastern Goths, and so alarmed them that Ermenric, their king, killed himself. Vithimis, his successor, fell in battle against the Huns, and.Alatheus and Saphrax, the guardians of his son Vitheric, retreated before this formidable enemy, to the country between the Borysthenes and the Danube. Athanaric and his Goths attempted a useless resistance to the Huns on the banks of the Dniester. The Goths, and among them were some of the people of Athanaric, to the number of about 200,000, appeared on the banks of the Danube and asked for permission to enter the Roman territories. Valens was then at Aritioch, and the Goths sent a deputation to him at the head of which was their bishop Ulpliilas. Valens granted the request of the Goths, but ordered that their children should be carried over to Asia as hostages, and that the Goths should not bring their arms with them ; but the last part of the order was imperfectly executed. Accordingly the Goths were received into Thrace and spread


over the country on the borders of the Danube. Their chiefs were Alavif and Fritigern.

Valens was still at Antioch (a. d. 377). It was the policy of the Romans to draw away the Goths from the immediate banks of the Danube, who had not moved off, because they were not supplied with provisions, as the emperor had ordered. Lu-picinus, Comes of Thrace and Maximus, who held the rank of Dux, are accused of irritating the bar­barians by their treatment, and of driving them to arms. Lupicinus attempted to make the Goths leave the Danube, and employed for that purpose the soldiers who were stationed on the river ; but as soon as the Greuthingi, under Saphrax and Alatheus, saw the banks unprotected, they crossed over, having previously been refused permission. The Greuthingi joined Fritigern and his Goths at Marcianopolis. Lupicinus invited Alavif and Fri­tigern to a feast, but instead of a reconciliation, this brought about a quarrel, and a battle, in which Lupicinus was defeated. Some Goths, who were already encamped near Hadrianople, were ordered to cross the Hellespont, but they asked for two days' delay and supplies for the journey. The chief magistrate of the city, being irritated at some damage done by the Goths to a country-house of his, attacked them, and had the worst in the com­bat. These Goths soon joined Fritigern, who had advanced as far as Hadrianople, and they besieged the city. They could not take Hadrianople, but they were masters of all the country, which they pillaged.

Valens was at Antioch when he heard this news, and he sent forward Profuturus and Trajanus with the legions from Armenia to bring the Goths to obedience. These two generals were joined by Ricimer, who brought some help from Gratian. The Romans found the main body of the Goths at a place called Salices or the Willows, supposed to be in the tract called Scythia Parva between the lower course of the Danube and the sea, where a great battle was fought, apparently with no ad­vantage to the Romans, for they returned to Mar­cianopolis. The further operations of this campaign led to no decisive result, and there was loss on both sides. The Goths appear to have spread them­selves all over the country between the Danube and the Archipelago, and to have advanced even to the suburbs of Constantinople. Valens reached Constantinople on the 30th of May, A. d. 378. He deprived Trajanus of the command of the infantry, which he gave to Sebastianus, to whom he entrusted the conduct of the war. " It was," says Tillemont, " worthy of an Arian emperor to entrust his troops to a Manichaean. It was he who with the em­peror determined on the unfortunate battle where they perished, against the advice of the most pru­dent, and principally Victor, general of the cavalry, a man altogether Catholic." Valens left Con­stantinople on the llth of June, with evil omens. A solitary named Isaac, whose cell was near Constan­tinople, threatened him with tha vengeance of God. 44 Restore," he said," to the flocks their holy pas­tors, and you will gain a victoiy without trouble: if you fight before you have done it, you will lose A'our armv and you will never return."

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The emperor encamped with a powerful army near Hadrianople. Trajanus, it appears, was re­stored to his command, or held some command ; but the advice of Sebastianus prevailed with the emperor over that of Victor and the other generals,

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