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(Theog. '869), and a fearful hurricane, who by Echidna became the father of the dog Orthus, Cerberus, the Lernaean hydra, Chimaera, and the Sphynx. (Tlieog. 306 ; comp.. Apollod. ii. 3. § 1, iii. 5. § 8.) Notwithstanding the confusion of the two beings in later writers, the original meaning of Typhaon was preserved in ordinary life. (Ari- stoph. Ran. 845 ; Plin. H. N. ii. 48.) Typhoeus, on the other hand, is described as the youngest son of Tartarus and Gaea, or of Hera alone, because she was indignant at Zeus having given birth to Athena. Typhoeus is described as a monster with a hundred heads, fearful eyes, and terrible voices (Find. Pyth. i. 31, viii. 21, Ol.iv. 12) ; he wanted to acquire the sovereignty of gods and men, but was subdued, after a fearful struggle, by Zeus, with a thunderbolt. (Hes. TJieog. 821, &c.) He begot the winds, whence he is also called the father of the Harpies (Val. FJacc. iv. 428), but the be neficent winds Notus, Boreas, Argestes, and Ze- phyrus, were not his sons. (Hes. Tfieog. 869, &c.) Aeschylus and Pindar describe him as living in a Cilician cave. (Pind. Pyth. viii. 21 ; comp. the dif ferent ideas in Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1210, &c., and Herod, iii. 5.) He is further said to have at one time been engaged in a struggle with all the im mortals, and to have been killed by Zeus with a flash of lightning ; he was buried in Tartarus under Mount Aetna, the workshop of Hephaestus. (Ov. Her. xv. 11, Fast. iv. 491 ; Aeschyl. Prom. 351, &c. ; Pind. Pyth. i. 29, &c.) The later poets fre quently connect Typhoeus with Egypt, and the gods, it is said, when unable to hold out against him, fled to Egypt, where, from fear, they meta morphosed themselves into animals, with the ex ception of Zeus and Athena. (Anton. Lib. 28 ; Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 28 ; Ov. Met. v. 321, &c. ; comp. Apollod. i. 6. § 3 ; Ov. Fast. ii. 461 ; Horat. Cann. iii. 4. 53.) [L. S.]
TYRANNION (TwpamW). 1. A Greek grammarian, a native of Amisus in Pontus, the son of Epicratides, or, according to some accounts, of Corymbus. He was a pupil of Hestiaeus of Amisus, and was originally called Theophrastus, but received from his instructor the name of Tyrannion on account of his domineering behaviour to his fellow disciples. He afterwards studied under Dionysius the Thracian at Rhodes. In b.c. 72 he was taken captive by Lucullus, who carried him to Rome. At the request of Murena Tyrannion was handed over to him, upon which he emancipated him, an act with which Plutarch (Lucullus^ 19) finds fault, as the emancipation involved a recognition of his having been a slave, which does not seem to have been the light in which Lucullus regarded him. .At Rome Tyrannion occupied himself in teaching. He was also employed in arranging the library of Apellicon, which Sulla brought to Rome. (Pint. Sulla, 26.) Cicero employed him in a similar manner, and speaks in the highest terms of the learning and ability which Tyrannion exhibited in these labours. (Cic. ad Ait. iv. 4, b. 1. 8, a. 2). Cicero also availed himself of his services in the instruction of his nephew Quintus (ad Quint. Fratr. ii. 4. § 2 ; comp. ad Att. ii. 6. § 1, xii. 6. § 1, 2. § 2, 7. § 2, ad Quint. Fr. iii. 4. § 5). Strabo (xii. p. 548) speaks of having received instruction from Tyrannion. The geographical knowledge of Ty-. rannion seems to have been considerable; at any rate Cicero thought highly of it. (Cic. ad Att. ii. 6.) Tyrannion amassed considerable wealth, and ac-
cording to the scarcely credible statement of Suidas (s. v.} collected himself a library of 30,000 volumes. Cicero alludes to a small work of his (ad Att. xii. 6), but we do not learn the subject of it. Tyrannion died at a very advanced age of a paralytic stroke.
2. A native of Phoenicia, the son of Artemidorus, and a disciple of the preceding. His original name was Diocles. He was taken captive in the war between Antonius and Octavianus, and was purchased by Dymas, a freedman of the emperor. By him he was presented to Terentia, the wife of Cicero, who manumitted him. He taught at Rome, and according to Suidas, wrote 68 works. The following are mentioned:—1. Tlepl rrjs 'O/uripiK-ijs trpofftpfiias. 2. Hepl rwv fjiepuv rov \6yov. 3. Hep! rfjs 'PwfjiaiCKjjs SiaAe/crou, showing that the Latin language is derived from the Greek. 4. ToD ' nyevovs f) 'Pw/uai'/c?) ?Jid\eKTos. 5. "On 8ia vovcriv ol ve&repoi TroiTjral irpos <rO^f]pov. 6. ' is rov Tvpavviwvos fj.epicrfji.ov. 7. Aid iK^. 8. 'OpBoypatyta. Tyrannion is mentioned in the scholia on Homer (Schol. Marc, ad II. /3r. 92, 155, 169).
3. Suidas mentions a third writer of the name of Tyrannion, a Messenian, who wrote a work on augury (olwoffKOTriKa) in three books, and some other works.
A work Tlepl rov o-ko\iov fj-erpov is ascribed by Suidas (s. v. o~Ko\t6v) to a writer named Tyrannion, and stated to have been written at the suggestion of Caius Caesar. If this notice is correct, and the Tyrannion meant is the second of that name, he must have reached a very advanced age when he commenced this treatise, even supposing him to have been young when he was brought to Rome. [C. P. M.]
TYRIASPES (Tvpidcnrys), a Persian, who in b. c. 327 was appointed by Alexander the Great to the satrapy of the Paropamisadae, west of the river Cophen. In the following year Alexander commissioned him and Philippus to reduce the Assacenians, who had revolted (Arr. Anab. iv. 22, v. 20.) [E. E.]
TYRO (Tvptib), a daughter of Salmoneus and Alcidice, was the wife of Cretheus, and the be loved of the river-god Enipeus in Thessaly, in the form of whom Poseidon appeared to her, and be came by her the father of Pelias and Neleus. By Cretheus she was the mother of Aeson, Pheres, and Amythaon. (Horn. Od. xi. 235, &c.; Apollod. i. 9. § 8.) [L. S.]
TYRRHENUS (Tv^p7]v6s or Tvpo-rjv6s), a son of the Lydian king Atys and Callithea, and a brother of Lydus, is said to have led a Pelasgian colony from Lydia into Italy, into the country of the Umbrians, and to have given to the colonists his name, Tyrrhenians. (Herod, iv. 94 ; Dionys. Hal. i. 27.) Others call Tyrrhenus a son of He racles by Omphale (Dionys. i. 28), or of Telephus and Hiera, and a brother of Tarchon. (Tzetz. ad Lye. 1242, 1249.) The name Tarchon seems to be only another form for Tyrrhenus, and the two names represent a Pelasgian hero founding settle ments in the north of Italy. (Comp. Miiller, Die Etrusker, vol. i. p. 72, &c.) [L. S.]