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1; Ascon. in Scaur, p. 28, ed. Orelli; Cic. ad AtL vii. 3, 8, 9, viii. 15, ix. 10, 19, x. 3, ad Fam. iv. 4. § 4.)
2. C. volcatius tullus, probably a son of No. 1, since Cicero says that L. Tullus and Serv. Sulpicius had sent their sons to fight against Pom-jiey. (Cic. ad Ait. x. 3.) C. Tullus fought under Caesar in the Gallic war, and likewise distinguished himself at the siege of Dyrrhachium in B. c. 48. (Caes. B. G. vi. 29, B. C. iii. 52.)
TURBO, a gladiator of small stature but great courage. (Hor. Sat. ii. 3. 310, with the Schol.)
TURBO, MA'RCIUS LIVIA'NUS, a distinguished general under Trajan and Hadrian. He was sent by the former emperor in A. d. 115 to Egypt to suppress the insurrection of the Jews at Cyrene, which he effected without much difficulty. On the accession of Hadrian (a.D.I 17), with whom he had lived on intimate terms during the life-time of Trajan, he was raised to offices of higher honour and trust. He was first sent into Mauritania to quiet the disturbances in that province which were supposed to have been excited by Q. Lusius Quietus [quietus], and he was afterwards appointed to the government of Pan-nonia and Dacia with the title of Egyptian Prae-fect, that he might possess greater weight and influence. Subsequently he was summoned to Rome, and raised to the important dignity of Praefectus Praetorio in place of Attianus. In the discharge of the duties of this office, he was most assiduous; but nevertheless, like all the other friends of Hadrian, was at length treated with ingratitude by the emperor. Turbo was fifty years of age at the time of his death, as we learn from an inscription on his tomb. (Euseb. H. E. iv. 2 ; Spart. Hadr. 4—9, 15 j Dion Cass. Ixix. 18 j Gruter,p. 437. 1.)
TURDUS, C. PAPI'RIUS, tribune of the plebs, b.c. 178. (Liv. xli. 6.) This is the only person of this family mentioned. Cicero speaks of the Turdi as a plebeian family of the Papiria gens (ad Fam. ix. 21. § 3).
TURIA, the wife of Q. Lucretius Vespillo, concealed her husband when he was proscribed by the triumvirs in b. c. 43. (Val. Max. vi. 7. § 2 j Appian, B. C. iv. 44.) [vespillo.]
TURIBIUS, a Spanish bishop, a bitter enemy and persecutor of the Priscillianists. About the year A. d. 447, before he was elevated to the episcopal dignity, he published a letter still extant, entitled Epistola de non recipiendis in auctoritatem Fidei apocryphis Scripturis, et de secta Priscillianis-tarum^ addressed to his friends Idacius and Cepo-nius. A letter to Pope Leo the Great, and various tracts connected with the controversy, have perished.
The Epistle to Idacius and Ceponius was first printed by Ambrosius de Morales, in his Historia Hispaniae, lib, xi. 26, and will be found in the editions of the works of Leo by Quesnell and by the brothers Ballerini, inserted immediately after the letter of Leo to Turibius, which is numbered xv. (Schoenemann, Biblioth. Patrum Latt. vol. ii.
§ 51; Baehr, GeseJiicJite der Rom. Litterat. Suppl. Band. 2te Abtheil. § 167.) [W. R.J
TURIUS. 1. L. turius, was accused by Cn. Gellius and defended by Cato the Censor. (Gell. xiv. 2.) As nothing is known respecting either this L. Turius or Cn. Gellius, a wide field is opened for learned trifling. The different conjectures started are given by Meyer. (Orator. Roman. Fragm. p. 140, foil., 2nd ed.)
2. L. turius, characterized by Cicero as an orator of small talent but great diligence, failed in obtaining the consulship only by a few centuries. (Cic. Brut. 67.) This Turius can hardly be the same person as the preceding, as he is mentioned by Cicero with M. Piso, P. Murena, C. Censorinus, C. Macer, C. Piso, and L. Torquatus, all of whom were the contemporaries of Cicero.
3. Q. turius, a negotiator or money-lender in the province of Africa, where he died. Cicero wrote to Q. Cornificius in b. c. 44, begging him to support the validity of the will of Turius against the attempts of his freedman Turius Eros. (Cic. ad Fam.'x.u. 26.)
4. turius, a corrupt judge in the time of Horace. (Hor. Sat. ii. 1. 49.)
TURNUS (Ttpvos), a son of Daunus and Venilia, and king of the Rutulians at the time of the arrival of Aeneas in Italy. (Virg. Aen. x. 76, 616.) He was a brother of Juturna and related to Amata, the wife of king Latinus. (xii. 138.) Alecto, by the command of Hera, stirred him up to fight against Aeneas after his landing in Italy, (vii. 408, &c.) He appears in the Aeneid as a brave warrior, but in the end he fell by the hand of the victorious Aeneas (xii. 926, &c.). Livy (i. 2) and Dionysius also mention him as king of the Rutulians, who allied himself with the Etruscans against the Latins, consisting of Aborigenes and Trojans. The Rutulians according to their account indeed were defeated, but Aeneas fell. (Comp. aeneas.) [L. S.]
TURNUS, a Roman satyric poet. According to the old scholiast upon Juvenal, who quotes two lines from one of his pieces, he was a native of Aurunca, of servile extraction (libertini generis), the brother of Scaeva Memor the tragedian, and rose to honour and power at court under the Flavian dynasty. He is mentioned in terms of high praise by Martial, by Rutilius, and by Sidonius Apollinaris. We possess thirty hexameters, forming a portion of, apparently, a long satyric poem, the subject being an enumeration of the crimes and abominations which characterised the reign of Nero. This fragment was first published from a MS. by J. L. G. de Balzac in his " Entretiens" (12mo. Amst. 1663), was copied by Burmann into his " Anthologia Latina" (vi. 94, or No. 190, ed. Meyer), and by Wernsdorf, into his Poetae La-tini Minores (vol. iii. p. Ivii. p. 77). The latter employs stfme arguments which, to a certain extent, bear out his conjecture that the piece ought to be ascribed to Turnus; but the evidence is of a very indirect and uncertain description. (Vet. Schol. in Juv. i. 20, 71 ; Martial, vii. 97, xi. 10; Rutil. Numat. i. 599; Sidon. Apollin. Carm. ix. 267; F. A. Wolf, Vorlesungen uber Rom. Litt. p. 231 ; Zumpt, ad Rutil. Numat. I. c.) [W. R.]
TURNUS (Toupos), a statuary, known only by the single passage in which Tatian mentions his statue of the courtezan Lai's. (Orat. ad Graec. 55, p. 121, ed. Worth: Aats eVopj/eture, /cal 6