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1189

TULLIUS.

take the arms and places of such as might fall in battle: the proletarii were those who had at least 375 asses, or originally 75 asses, and they were sometimes armed in pressing danger at the public expense: while the capite censi were all those whose property was less than the sum last mentioned, and they were never called upon to serve till the time of Marius. Thus the infantrv or Pedites contained in all 175 centuries.

The cavalry or Equites were divided by Servius Tullius into 18 centuries, which did not comprise Seniores or Juniores, but consisted only of men below the age of forty-six. The early history and arrangement of the Equites have given rise to much discussion among modern scholars, into which we cannot enter here. (See Diet, of Antiq. s. v. Equites.) It is sufficient for our present purpose to state that Tarquinius Priscus had divided each of the three ancient centuries of equites into two troops, called respectively the first (priores) and second (posteriores) Ramnes, Tities, and Luceres. yhese three double centuries Servius Tullius formed into six new centuries, usually called the sex svffragia: and as they were merely a new organi­sation of the old body, they must have consisted exclusively of patricians. Besides these six cen­turies, Servius formed twelve others, taken from the richest and most distinguished families in the state, plebeian as well as patrician. There can be little question that a certain amount of property was necessary for admission to all the equestrian centuries, as well in consequence of the timocratic principle of this part of the Servian constitution, as on account of the express statement of Dionysius (iv. 18) that the equites were chosen by Servius out of the richest and most illustrious families, and of Cicero (de Rep. ii. 22) that they were of the highest census (censu maxima). Neither of these writers nor Livy mentions the property which was necessary to entitle a person to a place among the

TULLIUS,

equites ; but as we know that the equestrian census in the later times of the republic was four times the amount of that of the first class, it is probable that the same census was established by Servius Tullius. Niebuhr indeed supposed that the sex suffragia, comprised all the patricians, independent of the property they possessed; but this supposition is, independent of other considerations, disproved by the fact, that we have express mention of a patrician, L. Tarquitius, who was compelled on account of his poverty to serve on foot.

The 175 centuries of pedites and the 18 of equites thus made a total of 193 centuries. Of these, 97 formed a majority of votes in the as­sembly. Although all the Roman citizens had a vote in this assembly, which was called the Co-mitia Centuriata, from the voting by centuries, it will be seen at once that the poorer classes had not much influence in the assembly ; for the 18 centuries of the equites and the 80 centuries of the first class, voted first ; and df they could come to an agreement upon any measure, they possessed at once a majority, and there was no occasion to call upon the centuries of the other classes to vote at all. This was the great object of the institution, which was to give the power to wealth, and not either to birth or to numbers.

The preceding account of the centuries has been taken from Livy (i. 43) and Dionysius- (iv. 16, foil.), who agree in all the main points. The account of Cicero (de Re Publ. ii. 22) cannot be re­conciled with that of Livy and Dionysius, and owing to the corruptions of the text it is hopeless to make the attempt. The few discrepancies be­tween Livy and Dionysius will be seen by the following table, taken from Becker, by which the reader will also perceive more clearly the census of each class, the number of centuries or votes which each contained, and the order in which they voted.

18

• 18

40

40

2

10

10

40

40

10 ]0

2

10

10

10

10

2

15

15

10

10

10

10

15

15

194

Livy. equites.—Centuriae ...

I. classis.—Census 100,000 asses. Centuriae Seniorum Centuriae Juniorum Centuriae Fabrum

II. classis.—Census 75,000 asses.

Centuriae Seniorum - -Centuriae Juniorum

III. classis.—Census 50,000 asses. Centuriae Seniorum Centuriae Juniorum

IV. classis.—Census 25,000 asses. Centuriae Seniorum Centuriae Juniorum

V. classis.—Census 11,000 asses. Centuriae Seniorum Centuriae Juniorum Centuriae accensorum, \ cornicinum,tubicinum _| Centuria capite censorum

Sum total of the Centuriae

dionysius. equites.—Centuriae -

I. classis.—Census 100 minae. Centuriae Seniorum Centuriae Juniorum

II. classis.—Census 75 minae.

Centuriae Seniorum - •

Centuriae Juniorum

Centuriae Fabrum - .

III. classis.—Census 50 minae. Centuriae Seniorum Centuriae Juniorum

IV. classis.—Census 25 minae. Centuriae Seniorum Centuriae Juniorum » Centuriae cornic. et tubic.

V. classis.—Census 12£ minae. Centuriae Seniorum Centuriae Juniorum

VI. classis.

Centuria capite censorum

Sum total of the Centuriae

4o 3

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